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Food Safety in Shrimp Processing: A Handbook for Shrimp Processors, Importers, Exporters and Retailers



Food Safety in Shrimp Processing: A Handbook for Shrimp Processors, Importers, Exporters and Retailers

Laxman Kanduri, Ronald A. Eckhardt

ISBN: 978-1-405-14736-1 April 2008 Wiley-Blackwell 184 Pages


Systems of producing food in safer ways, including the use of the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system are now being adopted widely throughout the world. The ever-growing global shrimp and prawn farming and processing industries are now beginning to realise the benefits of using HACCP and other food safety measures. However, until now, there has not been one single book bringing together full details of how to implement these systems, which are now seens as making an extremely important contribution to the safe production and processing of shrimps.

The authors of this book, who have a great deal of practical experience working with industry, and teaching food safety issues, have drawn together a wealth of information and guidance for the proper implementation of food safety measures, and the consequent processing of shrimps safely for the expanding market. Included in the book is an introduction to HACCP, how to implement sanitation programs and HACCP plans, and details of sampling procedures and monitoring plans for organoleptic, physical, chemical and microbiological quality.

Food Safety in Shrimp Processing is an essential purchase for all those involved in producing and processing shrimps throughout the world. Food scientists, micribiologists and technologists in the seafood processing industry, and government regulatory and public health personnel should have a copy of this book readily at hand. All libraries in universities, colleges and research establishments where food sciences, food technology and aquaculture are studied and taught should have copies of this book on their shelves.




Introduction to Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP).

What is HACCP?.

How is the HACCP based approach different from traditional food safety systems?.

Scope of HACCP.

Various federal regulatory agencies and their role in regulating seafood in the United States.

United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS)/Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

United States Department of Commerce (USDC)/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS).

Other Federal Agencies.

HACCP in the United States.

Implementation of HACCP in the United States.

Rationale for the FDA's adoption of a HACCP based approach to Seafood Inspection.

What are the practical implications to American seafood processors and seafood processors from other countries?.

Summary of the US HACCP regulations.

What are the benefits attributed to the HACCP regulations?.

HACCP and Export Health Certificate.

Who is excluded?.

HACCP Vs ISO 9000/14000 series of standards.

Relevance of HACCP to shrimp culture and processing.

Current world status of HACCP in shrimp culture and processing.

Implementing Sanitation and related Programs as Pre-requisite to HACCP.


Sanitation, the most important pre-requisite to HACCP, and what it actually means to a processor?.

What are the benefits of sanitation?.

Regulatory requirements.

How to comply with sanitation requirements under the new HACCP regulations?.

2.5.1 A. Premises.

Sanitary facilities.

Water quality.

Transportation and Storage (Raw materials, ingredients and packaging materials).

Equipment (Design, installation and maintenance).

Personnel (Training in manufacturing controls and hygienic practices).

Sanitation and pest control.

How to develop sanitation SSOPs to comply with the proposed HACCP based regulations?.

Cleaning schedule.

Wash facilities.



Water supply.

Waste disposal.


Pest control.


Developing a HACCP Plan.

What must be in a HACCP plan and how to implement a HACCP-based system?.

Assembling a HACCP team and assigning responsibilities.

Developing an organizational chart and narrative.

Describing the end product, intended use and its distribution.

Identifying product ingredients and incoming materials.

Developing an operational flow chart depicting the control points of a process in question.

Developing a plant schematic.

Developing a HA worksheet following the seven principles of HACCP.

First principle of HACCP-Identify potential Hazards and appropriate Control Measures.

Second principle of HACCP-Determine Critical Control Points (CCPs).

Third principle of HACCP-Establish Critical Limits (CLs).

Fourth principle of HACCP-Establish Monitoring Procedures (MPs).

Fifth principle of HACCP-Set Corrective Action (CA) Protocols to deviations.

Sixth principle of HACCP-Establish Verification Procedures.

Seventh principle of HACCP-Establish Procedures for Record keeping.

HACCP in Shrimp processing.

Introduction to shrimp processing.


Major cold-water shrimp species.

Tropical shrimp species.

Fresh water shrimp species.

Product/Market forms and definitions.

Processing (Raw).

Grading (size and counts).


Peeling and de-veining.

Processing (Cooked).

Dried Shrimp.




4.7.1 Glazing.

Cold storage.

Ice production and storage.

HACCP in shrimp processing.

General guidelines in developing a HACCP plan.

General concepts of sampling and monitoring.


Basics of sampling.

Major disadvantages of sampling.

When sampling is used?.

When sampling is most effective?.

Definitions of basic sampling terms.

Types of sampling plans.

Attribute plans.

Ten Percent Rule.


Statistical Process/Quality Control.

Sampling Procedures and Monitoring for Organoleptic, Physical and Chemical Quality.

Sampling schedule.

Organoleptic analysis.

Physical Requirements of Organoleptic Examination.

Other considerations.


Regulatory action guidance.

Physical testing.

Net weight.

Determination of the physical parameters.

Determination of filth in shrimp.

Flesh content of frozen breaded shrimp.

Standard cooking procedure.

Chemical testing.

Phosphorus (Phosphates).


Indole test for decomposition.

Monitoring for microbiological quality.


what are Microorganisms?.

Features that are unique to Microorganisms.

Factors that influence the growth of Microorganisms.

External Factors.

Internal Factors of the substrate.

Interaction between growth factors.

Microorganisms and their effect on humans.


Spoilage causing.

Classification of bacteria.


Based on their oxygen requirements.

Microbiological testing procedures.

Standard plate count (SPC)/or total viable count (TVC)/or total plate count (TPC)/or aerobic plate count (APC).

Total coliform and E. coli counts.

Salmonella spp.

Listeria monocytogenes.

Staphylococcus aureus.




"The book is essential for anyone involved in the handling and processing of shrimp and prawns"
Aquaculture Magazine

"For anyone who wants, or needs to understand how HACCP principles are used in the shrimp industry.... This book gathers otherwise scattered information into one place for ease of use... Recommended."

* HACCP compliance within the seafood industry is becoming a requirement internationally
* Will allow suppliers to the seafood processing industry to become HACCP compliant and hence optimize their potential outlets
* Author has much experience of implementing HACCP programs
* Will help shrimp culture and processing businesses to become safer and more efficient