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Food Safety in the Seafood Industry: A Practical Guide for ISO 22000 and FSSC 22000 Implementation



Food Safety in the Seafood Industry: A Practical Guide for ISO 22000 and FSSC 22000 Implementation

Nuno F. Soares, António A. Vicente, Cristina M. A. Martins

ISBN: 978-1-118-96508-5 December 2015 Wiley-Blackwell 200 Pages

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Seafood is one of the most traded commodities worldwide. It is thus imperative that all companies and official control agencies ensure seafood safety and quality throughout the supply chain. Written in an accessible and succinct style, Food Safety in Seafood Industry: A practical guide for ISO 22000 and FSSC 22000 implementation brings together in one volume key information for those wanting to implement ISO 22000 or FSSC 22000 in the seafood manufacturing industry.

Concise and highly practical, this book comprises:

  • a presentation of seafood industry and its future perspectives
  • the description of the main hazards associated to seafood (including an annexe featuring the analysis of notifications related with such hazards published by Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed - RASFF)
  • interpretation of ISO 22000 clauses together with practical examples adapted to the seafood manufacturing industry
  • the presentation of the most recent food safety scheme FSSC 22000 and the interpretation of the additional clauses that this scheme introduces when compared to ISO 22000

This practical guide is a valuable resource for seafood industry quality managers, food technologists, managers, consultants, professors and students.

This book is a tool and a vehicle for further cooperation and information interchange around seafood safety and food safety systems. QR codes can be found throughout the book; when scanned they will allow the reader to contact the authors directly, know their personal views on each chapter and even access or request more details on the book content. We encourage the readers to use the QR codes or contact the editors via e-mail ( or Twitter (@foodsafetybooks) to make comments, suggestions or questions and to know how to access the Extended Book Content.

foreword, ix

Acknowledgements, xi

Disclaimer, xi

Introduction, xiii

Chapter 1 Fishery sector, 1

1.1 Characterization of seafood, 1

1.1.1 Classification, 1

1.1.2 Anatomy, 2

1.1.3 Chemical composition, 6

1.1.4 Marine ecosystem, 10

1.2 Characterization of the seafood industry, 11

1.2.1 Development of the fish industry, 11

1.2.2 F ish consumption and international trade, 12

1.2.3 Fish production, 13

1.2.4 F ish as a source of income, 13

1.2.5 World fleet, 13

1.2.6 The status of fishery resources, 14

1.2.7 Unveiling the future, 14

1.3 Hazard assessment in seafood, 15

1.3.1 Biological hazards, 16

1.3.2 Chemical hazards, 20

1.3.3 Physical hazards, 28

1.4 Risks and benefits of seafood consumption, 28

1.4.1 Seafood at the beginning of modern human brain, 28

1.4.2 Benefits and risks, 29

Chapter 2 Food safety, 31

2.1 Introduction, 31

2.2 The Codex Alimentarius, 34

2.3 HACCP system: Hazard analysis and critical control points, 35

2.3.1 History, 35

2.3.2 HACCP system, 37

2.4 F ood safety standards, 41

2.4.1 IFS Food Standard (Version 6), 42

2.4.2 BRC Global Standard for Food Safety (Issue 6), 43

2.4.3 SQF Code (7th Edition Level 2), 43

Chapter 3 The EN ISO 22000:2005, 45

3.1 History, 45

3.2 Structure, 46

3.3 Implementation, 47

3.3.1 Pressure (drivers), 47

3.3.2 Method of implementation, 50

3.3.3 Difficulties and challenges, 51

3.3.4 Benefits, 52

3.4 Changes in the organization, 52

3.4.1 Initial resistance, 52

3.4.2 Other changes, 53

3.4.3 F actors for success, 54

3.5 Technical specification ISO/TS 22002‐1, 55

Chapter 4 Food safety management system EN ISO 22000:2005, 57

4.1 Introduction (Clauses 1–3), 57

4.2 F ood safety management system (Clause 4), 59

4.2.1 General requirements (Clause 4.1), 59

4.2.2 Documentation requirements (Clause 4.2), 60

4.3 Management responsibility (Clause 5), 64

4.3.1 Management commitment (Clause 5.1), 65

4.3.2 F ood safety policy (Clause 5.2), 66

4.3.3 F ood Safety Management System planning (Clause 5.3), 66

4.3.4 Responsibility and authority (Clause 5.4), 67

4.3.5 F ood Safety Team leader (Clause 5.5), 67

4.3.6 Communication (Clause 5.6), 69

4.3.7 Emergency preparedness and response (Clause 5.7), 73

4.3.8 Management review (Clause 5.8), 75

4.4 Resource management (Clause 6), 75

4.4.1 Human resources (Clause 6.2), 76

4.4.2 Infrastructure and work environment (Clauses 6.3 and 6.4), 78

4.5 Planning and realization of safe products (Clause 7), 79

4.5.1 General (Clause 7.1), 79

4.5.2 Prerequisite program (PRPs) (Clause 7.2), 79

4.5.3 Preliminary steps to enable hazard analysis (Clause 7.3), 99

4.5.4 Hazard analysis (Clause 7.4), 104

4.5.5 Establishing the operational prerequisite programs (PRPs) (Clause 7.5), 112

4.5.6 Establishing the HACCP plan (Clause 7.6), 112

4.5.7 Updating of preliminary information and documents specifying the PRPs and the HACCP plan (Clause 7.7), 114

4.5.8 Verification planning (Clause 7.8), 115

4.5.9 Traceability system (Clause 7.9), 116

4.5.10 Control of nonconformity (Clause 7.10), 117

4.6 Validation, verification, and improvement of food safety management system (Clause 8), 122

4.6.1 General (Clause 8.1), 122

4.6.2 Validation of control measure combinations (Clause 8.2), 122

4.6.3 Control of monitoring and measuring (Clause 8.3), 123

4.6.4 F ood safety management system verification (Clause 8.4), 124

4.6.5 Improvement (Clause 8.5), 126

Chapter 5 The FSSC 22000 certification, 129

5.1 History, 129

5.2 Scope, 130

5.2.1 Certification scope, 131

5.3 Prerequisite program, 131

5.4 Additional requirements, 132

5.4.1 Specifications for services, 132

5.4.2 Supervision of personnel in application of food safety principles, 135

5.4.3 Specific regulatory requirements, 135

5.4.4 Announced but unscheduled audits of certified organizations, 136

5.4.5 Management of inputs, 136

Appendix 1, 139

Appendix 2, 145

References, 167

Index, 175

"The book Food safety in the seafood industry by Nuno F. Soares et al. helped us implement FSSC 22000 at our fish canning plant. It served as an excellent guide in our road to certification. I highly recommend it to any fish processing plant as well as any other food processing establishment" -Ruth Shifugula - Nov 2016

A book being released today by Wiley-Blackwell just might be more effective in speaking to the seafood industry. Titled “Food Safety in the Seafood Industry: A Practical Guide for ISO 22000 and FSSC 22000 Implementation,” this book comes at the problem not through American legalize, but the more practical world of international standards.

The authors including University of Minho facility members Christina M.A. Martin and Antonio A. Vicente, says seafood is one of the most traded commodities worldwide that needs to protect its supply chain. They seem committed to achieving such a goal. They ‘re asking readers to contact them after getting through with the book.

If they succeed in opening a worldwide discussion of seafood safety, it might even help to get more compliance with those seafood HACCP regulations. There might even come a day when there won’t be so many warning letters going out to seafood processors" - Food Safety News – Dan Flynn -February 2016

"The authors do an exceptional job summarizing the drivers and issues while providing context for the required actions. Numerous discussions, illustrations and tables make the material easy to grasp. A thorough reference section completes the coverage. Anyone dealing with food safety or having to implement or maintain ISO 22000 or FSSC 22000 will benefit from reading this book". Quality Progress - Marc A. Feldman August 2016 

"In this book, the characteristics of seafood industry’s development and the factors that cause food safety problems were written by the authors in a simple yet informative text. At the same time, the ISO22000 standard and how the seafood industry can accomplish FSSC22000 certification are also described in detail in this book. This book allows quality managers working at the seafood industry to easily understand the technical points and master these standards. These professionals can take it as a handbook which guides them in their real work, thus saving the companies the expense of recruiting senior experts or inviting consulting companies to guide them. In fact, their quality managers can easily implement the process and achieve the certification of the food safety system. So, I strongly recommend this book to those who work in the seafood industry in China and around the world"- Kevin Wang – Editor-in-Chief of Food Safety Magazine - December 2016