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Food Security and Climate Change

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Description

This book looks at the current state of food security and climate change, discusses the issues that are affecting them, and the actions required to ensure there will be enough food for the future. By casting a much wider net than most previously published books—to include select novel approaches, techniques, genes from crop diverse genetic resources or relatives—it shows how agriculture may still be able to triumph over the very real threat of climate change.
Food Security and Climate Change integrates various challenges posed by changing climate, increasing population, sustainability in crop productivity, demand for food grains to sustain food security, and the anticipated future need for nutritious quality foods. It looks at individual factors resulting from climate change, including rising carbon emission levels, increasing temperature, disruptions in rainfall patterns, drought, and their combined impact on planting environments, crop adaptation, production, and management. The role of plant genetic resources, breeding technologies of crops, biotechnologies, and integrated farm management and agronomic good practices are included, and demonstrate the significance of food grain production in achieving food security during climate change.
Food Security and Climate Change is an excellent book for researchers, scientists, students, and policy makers involved in agricultural science and technology, as well as those concerned with the effects of climate change on our environment and the food industry.

List of Contributors xvii

1 Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security 1
Shyam S. Yadav, V. S. Hegde, Abdul Basir Habibi,Mahendra Dia, and Suman Verma

1.1 Introduction 1

1.1.1 Climate Change and Agriculture 3

1.1.2 Impact of Dioxide on Crop Productivity 4

1.1.3 Impact of Ozone on Crop Productivity 5

1.1.4 Impact of Temperature and a Changed Climate on Crop Productivity 6

1.2 Climate Change and Food Security 6

1.2.1 Climate Change and Food Availability 7

1.2.2 Climate Change and Stability of Food Production 8

1.2.3 Climate Change and Access to Food 8

1.2.4 Climate Change and Food Utilization 9

1.3 Predicted Impacts of Climate Change on Global Agriculture, Crop Production, and Livestock 10

1.3.1 Climate Change Mitigation, Adaptation, and Resilience 11

1.3.2 Mitigation 12

1.3.3 Adaptation and Resilience 12

1.3.4 Policies, Incentives, Measures, and Mechanisms for Mitigation and Adaptation 13

1.4 Impact of Divergent & Associated Technologies on Food Security under Climate Change 14

1.4.1 Integrated Pest Management (IPM) 15

1.4.2 Technological Options for Boosting Sustainable Agriculture Production 15

1.4.3 Mechanization in Agriculture Sector 16

1.4.4 Food Processing and Quality Agro-Products Processing 16

1.4.5 Planning, Implementing and Evaluating Climate-Smart Agriculture in Smallholder Farming Systems17

1.5 The Government of India Policies and Programs for Food Security 17

1.6 Conclusions 18

References 19

2 Changes in Food Supply and Demand by 2050 25
Timothy S. Thomas

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 Model Description 26

2.3 Model Assumptions 26

2.3.1 Economic and Demographic Assumptions 26

2.4 Climate Assumptions 28

2.5 Results 30

2.5.1 Production 30

2.6 Underutilized Crops 38

2.7 Consumption 38

2.8 Trade and Prices 42

2.9 Food Security 46

2.10 Conclusion 48

References 50

3 Crop Responses to Rising Atmospheric [CO2] and Global Climate Change 51
Pauline Lemonnier and Elizabeth A. Ainsworth

3.1 Introduction 51

3.1.1 Rising Atmospheric [CO2] and Global Climate Change 51

3.1.2 Measuring Crop Responses to Rising [CO2] 53

3.1.3 Physiological Responses to Rising [CO2] 54

3.2 Crop Production Responses to Rising [CO2] 58

3.2.1 Effects of Rising [CO2] on Food Quality 59

3.2.2 Strategies to Improve Crop Production in a High CO2 World 61

3.2.2.1 Genetic Variability in Elevated [CO2] Responsiveness:The Potential and Challenges for Breeding 62

3.2.2.2 Strategies for Genetic Engineering 63

Acknowledgements 64

References 64

4 Adaptation of Cropping Systems to Drought under Climate Change (Examples from Australia and Spain) 71
Garry J. O’Leary, James G. Nuttall, Robert J. Redden, Carlos Cantero-Martinez,and M. InesMinguez

4.1 Introduction 71

4.2 Water Supply 72

4.2.1 Changing Patterns of Rainfall 72

4.2.2 Rotations, Fallow, and Soil Management 74

4.3 Interactions of Water with Temperature, CO2 and Nutrients 77

4.3.1 High Temperature Response of Wheat 77

4.3.2 High Temperature and Grain Quality of Wheat 79

4.3.3 Atmospheric CO2 Concentration and Crop Growth 79

4.3.4 Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and Grain Quality 80

4.4 Matching Genetic Resources to The Environment and the Challenge to Identify the Ideal Phenotype 80

4.5 Changing Climate and Strategies to Increase Crop Water Supply and Use 82

4.6 Beyond Australia and Spain 84

4.7 Conclusions 85

Acknowledgments 85

References 86

5 Combined Impacts of Carbon, Temperature, and Drought to Sustain Food Production 95
Jerry L. Hatfield

5.1 Introduction 95

5.1.1 Need for Food to Feed the Nine Billion by 2050 95

5.2 Changing Climate 96

5.3 Carbon Dioxide And Plant Growth 97

5.3.1 Responses of Plants to Increased CO2 97

5.3.2 Effect of Increased CO2 on Roots 100

5.3.3 Effect of Increased CO2 on Quality 100

5.4 Temperature Effects on Plant Growth 102

5.4.1 Responses of Plants to High Temperatures 102

5.4.2 Mechanisms of Temperature Effect on Plants 104

5.5 Water Effects on Plant Growth 106

5.5.1 Mechanisms of Water Stress 107

5.6 Interactions of Carbon Dioxide, Temperature, And Water in a Changing Climate 108

References 110

6 Scope, Options and Approaches to Climate Change 119
S. Seneweera, Kiruba Shankari Arun-Chinnappa, and Naoki Hirotsu

6.1 Introduction 119

6.2 Impact of CO2 and climate stress on growth and yield of agricultural crop 120

6.3 The Primary Mechanisms of Plants Respond to Elevated CO2 121

6.4 Interaction of Rising CO2 With Other Environmental Factors – Temperature And Water 121

6.5 Impact of Climate Change on Crop Quality 122

6.6 Climate Change, Crop Improvement, and Future Food Security 123

6.7 Intra-specific Variation in Crop Response to Elevated [CO2] – Current Germplasm Versus Wild Relatives 124

6.8 Identification of New QTLs for Plant Breeding 124

6.9 Association Mapping for Large Germplasm Screening 125

6.10 Genetic Engineering of CO2 Responsive Traits 125

6.11 Conclusions 126

References 127

7 Mitigation and Adaptation Approaches to Sustain Food Security under Climate Change 131
Li Ling and Xuxiao Zong

7.1 Technology and its Approaches Options to Climate Change in Agriculture System 132

7.1.1 Adjusting Agricultural Farming Systems and Organization, with Changes in Cropping Systems 133

7.1.2 Changing Farm Production Activities 135

7.1.3 Developing Biotechnology, Breeding New Varieties to Adapt to Climate Change 135

7.1.4 Developing Information Systems, and Establishing a Disaster PreventionSystem 136

7.1.5 Strengthening the Agricultural Infrastructure, Adjusting Management Measures 137

7.2 Development and Implementation of Techniques to Combat Climatic Changes 137

7.2.1 Improving Awareness of Potential Implications of Climate Change Among All Parties Involved (from grassroots level to decision makers) 138

7.2.2 Enhancing Research on Typical Technology 138

7.2.2.1 Enhancing Research on Typical Technology for Different Areas 138

7.2.2.2 Enhancing Research on Food Quality Under Climate Change 138

7.2.2.3 Enhancing Research on Legumes and Its Biological Nitrogen Fixation 139

7.2.3 Developing Climate-Crop Modelling as an Aid to Constructing Scenarios 140

7.2.4 Development and Assessment Efforts of Adaptation Technology 140

References 141

8 Role of Plant Breeding to Sustain Food Security under Climate Change 145
Rodomiro Ortiz

8.1 Introduction 145

8.2 Sources of Genetic Diversity and their Screening for Stress Adaptation 146

8.2.1 Crop-related Species 146

8.2.2 Domestic Genetic Diversity 146

8.2.3 Crossbreeding 147

8.2.4 Pre-breeding 148

8.2.5 Biotechnology and Modeling as Aids for Breeding Cultivars 148

8.3 Physiology-facilitated Breeding and Phenotyping 149

8.3.1 Abiotic Stress Adaptation and Resource-use Efficiency 150

8.3.2 Precise and HighThroughput Phenotyping 150

8.4 DNA-markers for Trait Introgression and Omics-led Breeding 151

8.5 Transgenic Breeding 152

References 153

9 Role of Plant Genetic Resources in Food Security 159
Robert J. Redden, Hari Upadyaya, Sangam L. Dwivedi, Vincent Vadez,Michael Abberton, and Ahmed Amri

9.1 Introduction 159

9.2 Climate Change and Agriculture 160

9.3 Adjusting Crop Distribution 160

9.4 Within Crop Genetic Diversity for Abiotic Stress Tolerances 160

9.5 Broadening the Available Genetic Diversity Within Crops 161

9.6 Crop Wild Relatives as a Novel Source Of Genetic Diversity 161

9.7 Genomics, Genetic Variation and Breeding for Tolerance of Abiotic Stresses 162

9.8 Under-utilised Species 163

9.9 Genetic Resources in the Low Rainfall Temperate Crop Zone 164

9.10 Forage and Range Species 166

9.11 Genetic Resources in the Humid Tropics 166

9.12 Genetic Resources in the Semi-arid Tropics and Representative Subsets 168

9.13 Plant Phenomics 168

9.14 Discovering Climate Resilient Germplasm Using Representative Subsets 170

9.14.1 Multiple Stress Tolerances 170

9.14.2 Drought Tolerance 170

9.14.3 Heat Tolerance 173

9.14.4 Tolerance of Soil Nutrient Imbalance 174

9.15 Global Warming and Declining Nutritional Quality 174

9.16 Crop Wild Relatives (CWR) -The Source of Allelic Diversity 174

9.17 Introgression of Traits from CWR 175

9.18 Association Genetics to Abiotic Stress Adaptation 176

9.19 Strategic Overview 177

9.20 Perspectives 177

9.21 Summary 179

References 179

10 Breeding New Generation Genotypes for Conservation Agriculture in Maize-Wheat Cropping Systems under Climate Change 189
Rajbir Yadav, Kiran Gaikwad, Ranjan Bhattacharyya, Naresh Kumar Bainsla,Manjeet Kumar, and Shyam S. Yadav

10.1 Introduction 189

10.2 Challenges Before Indian Agriculture 191

10.2.1 Declining Profit 191

10.2.2 Depleting Natural Resources: 193

10.2.2.1 Water: 193

10.2.2.2 Soil Health/ Soil Quality 193

10.2.3 Changing Climate 195

10.2.4 Climate Change Adaptation:Why it is Important in Wheat? 198

10.3 CA as a Concept to AddressThese Issues Simultaneously 199

10.4 Technological Gaps for CA in India 199

10.4.1 Machinery Issue 199

10.4.2 Non-availability of Adapted Genotypes for Conservation Agriculture 200

10.4.3 Designing the Breeding Strategies 201

10.5 Characteristics of Genotypes Adapted for CA 202

10.5.1 Role of Coleoptiles in Better Stand Establishment Under CA 202

10.5.2 Spreading Growth Habit During Initial Phase for Better Moisture Conservation and Smothering of Weeds 204

10.5.3 Exploitation of Vernalization Requirement for Intensification 205

10.5.4 Integrating Cropping System and Agronomy Perspective in Breeding for CA 209

10.6 Wheat Ideotype for Rice-Wheat Cropping Systems of Northern India 214

10.7 Breeding Methodology Adopted in IARI for CA Specific Breeding 215

10.8 Countering the Tradeoff Between Stress Adaptation and Yield Enhancement Through CA Directed Breeding 216

10.8.1 Yield Enhancement by IncreasingWater Use EfficiencyThrough CA 218

10.9 Conclusions 220

References 221

11 Pests and Diseases under Climate Change; Its Threat to Food Security 229
Piotr Trȩbicki and Kyla Finlay

11.1 Introduction 229

11.2 Climate Change and Insect Pests 231

11.3 Climate Change and Plant Viruses 235

11.4 Climate Change and Fungal Pathogens 238

11.5 Climate Change and Effects on Host Plant Distribution and Availability 240

Acknowledgments 241

References 241

12 Crop Production Management to Climate Change 251
Sain Dass, S. L. Jat, Gangadhar Karjagi Chikkappa, and C.M. Parihar

12.1 Introduction 251

12.2 Maize Scenario in World and India 251

12.3 The Growth Rate of Maize 254

12.4 Maize Improvement 256

12.5 Single Cross Hybrids 256

12.6 Pedigree Breeding for Inbred Lines Development 257

12.6.1 Seed multiplication 258

12.6.2 Single Cross Development 258

12.7 Preferred Characteristics for Good Parent 259

12.7.1 Female or Seed Parent 259

12.7.2 Development of Specialty Corn Schs 259

12.7.3 Baby Corn and Sweet Corn 259

12.7.4 Quality Protein Maize (QPM) 260

12.7.4.1 Improvement of Inbred Lines 260

12.7.4.2 Improvement of Inbred Lines through MAS 260

12.7.4.3 Foreground selection 260

12.7.4.4 Background selection 261

12.7.4.5 Marker Assisted Backcross Breeding strategies (MABB) 262

12.7.4.6 MABB at What Cost? 262

12.7.5 Doubled Haploid (DH) Technique 263

12.7.5.1 Steps Involved In Vivo DH Inbred Lines Development 263

12.7.5.2 Advantages of DH Lines over Conventional Inbred Lines 265

12.7.6 Transgenic Maize and its Potential 265

12.7.6.1 Abiotic Stresses 266

12.7.6.2 Drought Tolerance 267

12.7.6.3 Screening Techniques 267

12.7.7 Hybrid Seed Production 268

12.7.7.1 Pre-requisites of Single Cross Hybrid Seed Production 268

12.7.8 Important Considerations for Hybrid Seed Production 268

12.7.8.1 Isolation Distance 268

12.7.8.2 Male:female Ratio 269

12.7.8.3 How to Bring Male: female Synchrony? 269

12.7.8.4 Hybrid Seed Production Technology 269

12.7.8.5 Hybrid Seed Production Sites 272

12.7.9 Crop Production 272

12.7.9.1 Cropping System Optimization 272

12.7.9.2 Crop Sequence 273

12.7.9.3 Best Management Practices (BMP) for Crop Establishment 274

12.7.9.4 Crop Establishment 274

12.7.9.5 Raised Bed / ridge and Furrow Planting 276

12.7.9.6 Zero-till Planting 278

12.7.9.7 Conventional Till Flat Planting 278

12.7.9.8 Furrow Planting 278

12.7.9.9 Transplanting 279

12.7.9.10 BMP for Water Management 279

12.7.9.11 BMP for nutrient management 281

12.8 Nutrient Management Practices for Higher Productivity and Profitability in Maize Systems 283

12.8.1 Timing and method of fertilizer application 284

12.8.2 Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) 284

12.8.3 Biofertilizers 285

12.8.4 Micronutrient Application 285

12.8.5 Slow Release Fertilizers 285

12.8.6 Precision Nutrient Management 285

12.8.7 Conservation Agriculture and Smart Mechanization 286

References 287

13 Vegetable Genetic Resources for Food and Nutrition Security under Climate Change 289
Andreas W. Ebert

13.1 Introduction 289

13.2 Global vegetable production 290

13.3 The Role of Genetic Diversity to Maintain Sustainable Production Systems Under Climate Change 290

13.4 Ex Situ Conservation of Vegetable Germplasm at The Global Level 296

13.5 Access to Information on Ex Situ Germplasm Held Globally 302

13.5.1 SINGER: Online Catalog of International Collections Managed by the GCIAR And WorldVeg 303

13.5.2 EURISCO: the European Genetic Resources Search Catalog 303

13.5.3 GRIN of USDA-ARS 304

13.5.4 GENESYS: the global gateway to plant genetic resources 304

13.5.5 The CropWild Relatives Portal 305

13.5.6 Crop Trait Mining Platforms 305

13.5.6.1 Crop Trait Mining Informatics Platform 305

13.5.6.2 The Diversity Seek Initiative 306

13.5.7 Trait information portal for CWR and landraces and crop-trait ontologies 307

13.5.8 Summary and Outlook 308

13.6 In Situ and On-farm Conservation of Vegetable Resources 310

13.7 Summary and Outlook 311

Acknowledgment 312

References 312

Annex 1 315

14 Sustainable Vegetable Production to Sustain Food Security under Climate Change at Global Level 319
Andreas W. Ebert, Thomas Dubois, Abdou Tenkouano, Ravza Mavlyanova, Jaw-FenWang, Bindumadhava Hanumantha Rao, Srinivasan Ramasamy, Sanjeet Kumar, Fenton D. Beed, Marti Pottorff, Wuu-Yang Chen, Ramakrishnan M. Nair, Harsh Nayyar, and James J. Riley

14.1 Introduction 319

14.2 Regional Perspective: Sub-Saharan Africa 320

14.2.1 The Effects of Climate Change in Sub-Saharan Africa 320

14.2.2 Interactions Between Climate Change and Other Factors Driving Vegetable Production and Consumption in Sub-Saharan Africa 321

14.2.3 Implications of Climate Change and Other Factors on Vegetable Production and Consumption in Sub-Saharan Africa 321

14.3 Regional Perspective: South and Central Asia 325

14.3.1 The Effects of Climate Change in South Asia 325

14.3.2 The Effects of Climate Change in Central Asia 326

14.3.3 Climate Change Adaptation Options in South and Central Asia 326

14.4 The Role of Plant Genetic Resources for Sustainable Vegetable Production 328

14.5 Microbial Genetic Resources to Boost Agricultural Performance of Robust Production Systems and to Buffer Impacts of Climate Change 329

14.6 Physiological Responses to a Changing Climate: Elevated CO2 Concentrations and Temperature in The Environment 330

14.6.1 CO2 and Photosynthesis 330

14.6.2 CO2 and Stomatal Transpiration 331

14.6.3 Dual Effect of Increased CO2 and Temperature 331

14.6.3.1 High Temperature (HT) Effect on Mungbean 332

14.6.3.2 Current and Proposed Mungbean Physiology Studies at Worldveg South Asia 332

14.6.4 Conclusion 334

14.7 Plant Breeding for Sustainable Vegetable Production 335

14.7.1 Formal Vegetable Seed System –Lessons Learned 335

14.7.2 Role ofWorldVeg’s International Breeding Programs 336

14.7.3 Impact ofWorldVeg’s Breeding Programs 337

14.7.4 Future Outlook 337

14.8 Management of Bacterial and Fungal Diseases for Sustainable Vegetable Production 338

14.9 Management of Insect and Mite Pests 342

14.10 Grafting to Overcome Soil-borne Diseases and Abiotic Stresses 344

14.11 Summary and Outlook 347

Acknowledgment 347

References 348

15 Sustainable Production of Roots and Tuber Crops for Food Security under Climate Change 359
Mary Taylor, Vincent Lebot, Andrew McGregor, and Robert J. Redden

15.1 Introduction 359

15.2 Optimum Growing Conditions for Root and Tuber Crops 361

15.2.1 Sweet Potato 361

15.2.2 Cassava 361

15.2.3 Edible Aroids 362

15.2.3.1 Taro 362

15.2.3.2 Cocoyam 362

15.2.3.3 Giant Taro 363

15.2.3.4 Swamp Taro 363

15.2.4 Yams 363

15.3 Projected Response of Root and Tuber Crops to Climate Change 364

15.3.1 Sweet Potato 364

15.3.2 Cassava 364

15.3.2.1 Edible Aroids 365

15.3.2.2 Yam 365

15.4 Climate Change and Potato Production 366

15.5 Sustainable Production Approaches 367

15.5.1 Agroforestry Systems 367

15.5.1.1 Combining Tree Crops and Roots and Tubers 367

15.5.2 Soil Health Management 368

15.5.3 Utilizing Diversity 368

15.6 Optimization of Root and Tuber Crops Resilience to Climate Change 369

15.7 Conclusion 371

References 371

16 The Roles of Biotechnology in Agriculture to Sustain Food Security under Climate Change 377
Rebecca Ford, Yasir Mehmood, Usana Nantawan, and Chutchamas Kanchana-Udomkan

16.1 Introduction 377

16.2 ReducedWater Availability and Drought 378

16.3 Drought-proofing Wheat and Other Cereals 378

16.4 Drought Tolerance in Temperate Legumes 380

16.5 Drought Tolerance in Tropical Crops 381

16.6 Rainfall Intensity, Flooding and Water-logging Tolerance 383

16.7 Heat Stress And Thermo–tolerance 385

16.8 Thermo-tolerance and Heat Shock Proteins in Food Crops 385

16.9 Heat Stress Tolerance in Temperate Legumes 388

16.10 Salinity Stress, Ionic and Osmotic Tolerances 388

16.11 Salinity Tolerance in Rice 389

16.12 Salinity Tolerance in Legumes 390

16.13 Transgenics to Overcome Climate Change Imposed Abiotic Stresses 390

16.14 Conclusion 392

References 393

17 Application of Biotechnologies in the Conservation and Utilization of Plant Genetic Resources for Food Security 413
Toshiro Shigaki

17.1 Introduction 413

17.2 Climate change 413

17.2.1 Population Explosion 414

17.2.2 Vandalism 414

17.3 Collecting Germplasm 415

17.4 Conservation 415

17.4.1 In situ Collection 415

17.4.2 Ex situ Collection 416

17.4.3 Slow Growth in Tissue Culture 416

17.4.4 Cryopreservation 417

17.4.5 Herbarium 419

17.4.6 Svalbard Global Seed Vault 419

17.5 Characterization of Germplasm 420

17.5.1 Early Developments 420

17.5.1.1 RFLP 420

17.5.1.2 RAPD 421

17.5.2 New Developments 421

17.5.2.1 Genotyping by Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) 421

17.5.2.2 Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) 421

17.5.3 Recent Developments 422

17.5.3.1 Genotyping by Sequencing (GBS) 422

17.5.4 Future Prospects 422

17.6 Germplasm Exchange 422

17.6.1 Bioassay 423

17.6.2 Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) 423

17.6.3 PCR 423

17.6.4 Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) 423

17.7 Germplasm Utilization 425

17.7.1 Embryo Rescue 425

17.7.2 Somatic Hybridization 426

17.7.3 Molecular Breeding 426

17.7.4 Genetic Engineering 426

17.7.5 Biosafety 428

17.8 Future Strategies and Guidelines for the Preservation of Plant Genetic Resources 428

References 430

18 Climate Change Influence on Herbicide Efficacy andWeed Management 433
Mithila Jugulam, Aruna K. Varanasi, Vijaya K. Varanasi, and P.V.V. Prasad

18.1 Introduction 433

18.2 Herbicides in Weed Management 434

18.3 Climate Factors and Crop-Weed Competition 434

18.4 Climate Change Factors, Herbicide Efficacy and Weed Control 438

18.4.1 Effects of Elevated CO2 and High Temperatures 438

18.4.2 Effects of Precipitation and Relative Humidity 440

18.4.3 Effects of Solar Radiation 441

18.5 Concluding Remarks and Future Direction 442

Acknowledgments 442

References 442

19 Farmers’ Knowledge and Adaptation to Climate Change to Ensure Food Security 449
Lois Wright Morton

19.1 Farmers and Climate Change 449

19.2 Knowledge About Climate 451

19.3 Weather and Climate 452

19.4 Values and Beliefs About Climate Change 453

19.5 Farmer Climate Beliefs 454

19.6 Vulnerability, Experiences of Risk, Concern About Hazards and confidence 456

19.7 Climate Related Hazards 458

19.8 Adaptation Factors 460

19.9 Water is the Visible Face of Climate 462

19.10 Making Sense of Climate: Local, Indigenous and Scientific knowledge 463

19.11 System Adaptation or Transformation 465

References 467

20 Farmer and Community-led Approaches to Climate Change Adaptation of Agriculture Using Agricultural Biodiversity and Genetic Resources 471
Tony McDonald, Jessica Sokolow, and Danny Hunter

20.1 Introduction 471

20.2 Impact of Climate Change on Farming Communities 472

20.3 Inequity of Climate Change across Farming Communities 474

20.4 Impact of Climate Change on the Many Elements of Genetic Resources and Agricultural Biodiversity 475

20.5 Monocultures 475

20.6 Wild Species 476

20.7 Role of Genetic Resources and Agricultural Biodiversity in Coping with Climate Change 477

20.8 Brief Overview of Approaches Using Genetic Resources and Agricultural Biodiversity to Cope with Climate Change 478

20.9 Identification of a Spectrum of Examples of Farmer-led Approaches 482

20.10 Examination of Barriers to Implementation of Farmer-led Approaches 483

20.10.1 Farmers & their Communities 490

20.10.2 Institutional & Collaborative mechanisms 491

20.10.3 Contextual & Background 492

20.11 Systems that are working 493

20.12 Conclusion 494

References 494

21 Accessing Genetic Diversity for Food Security and Climate Change Adaptation in Select Communities in Africa 499
Otieno Gloria

21.1 Introduction 499

21.2 Methodology 501

21.2.1 Reference Sites and Crops 501

21.2.2 Data and Methods 502

21.3 Results and Discussion 504

21.3.1 Summary of Climate Change in Selected Sites 504

21.3.2 Finding Potentially Adaptable Accessions from a Pool of National and International Plant Genetic Resources 504

21.3.2.1 Zambia 505

21.3.2.2 Zimbabwe 508

21.3.2.3 Benin 508

21.4 Conclusions and Policy Implications 520

References 521

Index 523