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Food and Agricultural Wastewater Utilization and Treatment, 2nd Edition

Food and Agricultural Wastewater Utilization and Treatment, 2nd Edition

Sean X. Liu

ISBN: 978-1-118-35396-7 April 2014 Wiley-Blackwell 272 Pages

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Description

Wastes, whether they are solid wastes or wastewater, are resources from which economic values may be derived. Almost all components of agricultural and food wastewater can be and should be utilized or recovered; the stumbling block of achieving this aspiration is economical, not technical. The last one and a half decades have seen the surging of agricultural and non-agricultural commodity prices across the board and increased public consciousness of environmental impact of industrial wastewater discharge and treatment. The confluence of these new developments have generated new interests and applications of agricultural and food wastewater and their treatment residuals in diverse fields and industries.

 

This new edition will expand topics related to wastewater utilizations and new uses of treatment residuals while providing up-to-date information on new treatment technologies and practices across the globe. The new edition’s target audience is anyone who has the responsibility of dealing with its plant effluents in agricultural and food processing operations. It should be of value to waste management personnel responsible for managing major waste effluents from agro and food industries.  It will also be useful for college students whose majors are in environmental science or waste management fields as a reference.

Preface to the second edition ix

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Characteristics of agricultural and food wastewater 1

1.2 Material balances and stoichiometry 18

1.3 Fluid flow rate and mass loading 20

1.4 Kinetics and reaction rates 20

1.5 Theoretical modeling and design of biological reactors 24

1.6 Process economics 27

1.7 Further reading 28

1.8 References 28

2 Basic microbiology in wastewater treatment 29

2.1 Introduction 29

2.2 Structures of cells 30

2.3 Important microorganisms in wastewater 30

2.4 Microbial metabolism 37

2.5 Nitrification 39

2.6 Denitrification 41

2.7 Further reading 42

2.8 References 43

3 Physicochemical wastewater treatment processes 45

3.1 Introduction 45

3.2 Equalization basins 46

3.3 Screening 48

3.4 Flotation 49

3.5 Sedimentation 52

3.6 Coagulation and flocculation 57

3.7 Filtration processes 62

3.8 Adsorption 65

3.9 Chemical oxidation 70

3.10 Membrane separations 71

3.11 Ion exchange 93

3.12 Closing remarks 99

3.13 Further reading 101

3.14 References 101

4 Biological wastewater treatment processes 103

4.1 Introduction 103

4.2 Kinetics of biochemical systems in wastewater microbiology 104

4.3 Idealized biochemical reactors 110

4.4 Completely mixed aerated lagoon (CMAL) 114

4.5 Trickling filter (TF) 116

4.6 Rotating biological contactor (RBC) 119

4.7 Combined aerobic processes 125

4.8 Contact anaerobic systems 126

4.9 Further reading 131

4.10 References 131

5 Advanced wastewater treatment processes 133

5.1 Introduction 133

5.2 Biological removal of nitrogen: nitrification and denitrification 135

5.3 Physicochemical removal of nitrogen 136

5.4 Biological removal of phosphorus 137

5.5 Physicochemical removal of phosphate 141

5.6 Membrane processes for advanced wastewater treatment 143

5.7 VOC removal with pervaporation 146

5.8 Disinfection 147

5.9 Further reading 150

5.10 References 150

6 Natural systems for wastewater treatment 153

6.1 Introduction 153

6.2 Stabilization ponds 154

6.3 Land treatment systems 166

6.4 Wetland systems 181

6.5 Floating aquatic plant systems 185

6.6 Further reading 192

6.7 References 192

7 Sludge treatment and management 195

7.1 Sludge quality and characteristics 196

7.2 Sludge thickening (concentration) 197

7.3 Sludge stabilization 201

7.4 Reed beds 205

7.5 Conditioning of sludge 208

7.6 Dewatering 209

7.7 Land applications and surface disposal 218

7.8 Incineration 219

7.9 Further reading 222

7.10 References 222

8 Recoverable products and energy from food and agricultural wastewaters 225

8.1 Introduction 225

8.2 Water recovery and reuse in the food and agricultural processing industries 228

8.3 Recoverable carbohydrates, fats, and proteins for human and animal consumption 229

8.4 Recoverable aroma flavoring compounds from food processing 232

8.5 Recoverable food/agricultural biomaterials for non-food uses 233

8.6 Energy or fuel generations from wastewaters 234

8.7 Algae-based biodiesel and fuel ethanol 237

8.8 Potential applications of industrial commodities derived from sludge treatment 239

8.9 Further reading 242

8.10 References 242

9 Economics of food and agricultural wastewater treatment and utilization 247

9.1 Introduction 247

9.2 Estimating the unit cost of treating food and agricultural wastewater 248

9.3 Estimating overall costs of wastewater treatment processes with substance and energy recovery 253

9.4 Further reading 254

9.5 References 254

Index 255