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Food and Package Engineering

Food and Package Engineering

Scott A. Morris

ISBN: 978-1-119-94979-4 August 2011 Wiley-Blackwell 466 Pages

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For the first time, engineering for the packaging industry – and for the biggest packaging user, food processing – is presented in a way that clearly demonstrates its interconnected, globally integrated nature. Food and Package Engineering is a groundbreaking work that serves as a comprehensive guide to the complexities and the potential of the industry.

Packaging draws on nearly every aspect of science, technology, business, social science, and engineering.  Rather than present a traditionally linear view of these topics, the author takes a "Packaging Cycle" approach by guiding readers through the life of the package from raw materials and conversion, operations, distribution, retail, all the way to recycling or disposal by the consumer. Food and Package Engineering includes many essential topics usually not addressed in other food engineering or packaging texts, including:

  • Raw materials production and conversion
  • Inventory management and production scheduling
  • Regulations, security and food safety
  • Recycling and landfill issues
  • Transportation systems and distribution packaging
  • Evaluation of developing technologies

The comprehensive approach of this volume provides a framework to discuss critical interrelated topics such as economics, politics, and natural resources.

Intended for readers with varying levels of experience, Food and Package Engineering provides multi-level accessibility to each topic, allowing both students and professionals to find useful information and develop technical expertise. Rather than being a simple exposition of technical knowledge, the book provides both real-world examples and challenging problems that require consideration at several different levels.

Extensively illustrated and meticulously researched, Food and Package Engineering offers both a technical and a real-world perspective of the field. The text serves the student or industry professional at any level or background as an outstanding learning and reference work for their professional preparation and practice.

Preface xi

Acknowledgments xiii

1. Basic Elements of Food Processing and Packaging 3

The Packaging Cycle 3

Food Processing 5

The Information Cycle 6

Economics, Marketing, and Packaging 7

Fundamental Packaging Functions 11

Engineering Design versus Trial and Error 14

2. Engineering Basics 17

The Fundamental Concepts of Engineering Analysis 17

Basics of Engineering 17

Engineering Analysis 18

Mass Balances 24

Energy Balances and Thermodynamics 26

Mechanical, Electrical, and Other Types of Non-thermal Energy 32

Mechanics of Materials 43

Fluid Flow Systems 50

Rheology 55

Heat Transfer 59

Alternative Food Processing Technologies 68

Microwave Heating and Processing Principles 70

Refrigeration 72

Mass Transfer 79

Drying, Dehydration, and Psychrometry 82

Appendixes 87

3. Raw Materials 97

Wood and Fiber 97

Ceramic Materials 99

Metals 100

Petrochemicals – Oil and Natural Gas 103

Other Gases – Propellants and Industrial Gases 104

Energy 104

4. Conversion of Raw Materials to Package Components 107

Paper 107

Glass 119

Metal Packaging Materials 129

Production of Steel 131

Aluminum Production 135

Plastics and Synthetic Polymers 142

5. Secondary Packaging Components 173

Closures 173

Glues and Adhesives 175

Other Bonding Agents 182

Aerosols 185

Microwave Packaging 189

Printing and Coding Processes 193

Coding, Scanning, and Identification Methods 203

6. Processes Calculations and Their Applications 207

Thermal Processing 207

Calculation of Thermal Process Times 208

Thermal Process Calculations 213

Aseptic Packaging 219

Commercial Microwave Processing 221

Alternate Processing Technologies 221

Light-Based Processing 221

Pulsed and Oscillating EMF Treatments 222

Ultrasonic Methods 223

High-Pressure Processing 223

Refrigeration and Freezing of Foods 224

Drying of Foods 227

Freeze-Drying 232

Irradiation 234

Concentration and Separation of Food Products 239

7. Food Preservation and Shelf Life 253

Introduction 253

Deterioration of Food Products 254

Shelf Life Testing 257

Examples of Specific Chemical Degradation Reactions 260

Environmental Agents and Shelf Life Reduction 263

Water Activity and Water Mobility 271

Microbial Product Changes 274

Shelf Life Extension by Preservative Agents 277

Package-Product Interaction 278

Active Packaging 281

Packaging and Shelf Life of Specific Food Types 283

Appendixes 293

8. Packaging Machinery, Filling, and Plant Operations 299

Machinery Types 299

Machinery Acquisition 307

Plant Operations 309

Production Optimization 313

Supply Chain Management 317

Inventory Management Techniques 322

Manufacturing Quality Assurance and Quality Control 325

Hypothesis Testing as a Problem-Solving Tool 334

Ergonomics 336

9. Transportation, Distribution, and Product Damage 343

Energy Efficiency 343

Distribution and Warehousing 345

Distribution Packaging 349

Response of Packages to Shipping and Handling 355

Dynamic Considerations in Packaging 355

Packaging Design for the Dynamic Environment 369

Package Design and Testing 371

10. Food Regulation, Safety Systems, and Security 379

Food and Packaging Regulation History 379

Food and Packaging Laws and Their Related Agencies 381

Food Safety and Security Systems 394

Food Security 397

11. Closing the Loop – Disposal, Re-use, Recycling, and the Environment 405

Re-use of Containers 406

Recycling 408

Disposal and Landfills 413

Packaging Waste Programs Outside the United States 417

Incineration 422

Composting 424

The Economics of Waste Handling 426

Sustainability 427

12. Future Developments and Technologies 433

The Gartner Hype Cycle 433

Change and Chaos 434

Economic Changes 435

Information Technologies 436

Connectivity 437

Engineering Biological Systems 438

Materials Sciences 439

Resource Scarcity 439

Changes in the Nature of Change 439

General Bibliography 441

Index 442

* designed around the systemic nature of the packaging industry
* discusses critical interrelated topics such as economics, politics and natural resources
* provides multi-level access using a modular design for general, intermediate and advanced level readers