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Forensic Psychology, 2nd Edition

Forensic Psychology, 2nd Edition

David A. Crighton, Graham J. Towl

ISBN: 978-1-118-75778-9

May 2015

482 pages

In Stock

$61.95

Description

Updated to reflect recent changes in the field, the 2nd Edition of Forensic Psychology presents a comprehensive overview of forensic psychology and its applications in the civil and criminal justice systems of the UK.

  • Builds on the first edition to convey material in an engaging manner to postgraduate students in psychology
  • Includes a significant expansion of pedagogical features, including text boxes highlighting key seminar issues and key debates in the field to further group discussion
  • Provides an up-to-date summary of emerging evidence in the field, and its implications for evidence based practice
  • Points to additional online learning resources at the conclusion of each chapter

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List of Contributors xix

1 Introduction 1
Graham J. Towl and David A. Crighton

Justice 2

Expert Controversies 3

Thinking about Human Rights and Ethics 4

Developmental Perspectives 5

Investigation and Prosecution Issues 8

Psychological Assessment 8

Critical Psychology 9

Substance Use 11

Early Intervention 11

Justice Restored 12

References 12

PART I Investigative Practic e 15

2 The Justice System in England and Wales: A Case Study 17
David Faulkner

What Justice Means 17

The Criminal Justice System 17

What is a Crime? 18

Measurement of Crime 19

The Criminal Justice Process 19

The Sentencing Framework 21

The Criminal Courts 22

Police and Policing 23

The Crown Prosecution Service 24

Prisons and the Prison Service 24

Probation 25

Youth Justice 25

Home Office 26

Ministry of Justice 26

Law Officers 27

Other National Bodies 27

Some Special Subjects 27

Conclusions 29

Notes 29

Further Reading 30

References 30

3 Offender Profiling 33
David A. Crighton

Introduction 33

Historical Development 33

Approaches to Offender Profiling 35

Recent Developments 36

Profiling Databases 37

The Evidence Base for Profiling 37

Practice Issues 40

Conclusions 41

Notes 42

Further Reading 42

References 42

4 Eyewitness Testimony 45
Lorraine Hope

Eyewitness Identification Performance 45

The Witnessed Event 46

Between the Witnessed Event and Identification Task 49

Intermediate Recognition Tasks 50

Identifications from CCTV 53

Procedural Guidelines Relating to Suspect Identification in the United Kingdom 55

The Eyewitness in Court 56

Conclusions 57

Further Reading 57

References 58

5 Jury Decision]Making 65
Andreas Kapardis

Introduction: The Jury Idea 65

The Notion of an Impartial and Fair Jury: A Critical Appraisal 66

Methods for Studying Juries/Jurors 67

Selecting Jurors 68

Pre-Trial Publicity 69

Juror Competence 70

Hung Juries 73

Models of Jury Decision]Making 73

Reforming the Jury to Remedy Some of its Problems 73

Alternatives to Trial by Jury 73

Conclusions 74

Notes 74

Further Reading 75

References 75

6 Assessment 81
David A. Crighton

Conceptual Issues in Assessment 81

Assessment 84

Data Gathering 88

Data Analysis 90

Clinical Judgements and Biases 92

Conclusions 93

Notes 94

Further Reading 94

References 94

7 Risk Assessment 97
David A. Crighton

Key Legal Issues 97

Key Principles in Risk Assessment 98

Risk Assessment Instruments 100

Critical Issues in Risk Assessment 103

Conclusions 107

Notes 108

Further Reading 108

References 109

PART II Working with Offending Populati ons 113

8 The Developmental Evidence Base: Neurobiological Research and Forensic Applications 115
Robert A. Schug, Yu Gao, Andrea L. Glenn, Melissa Peskin, Yaling Yang and Adrian Raine

The Developmental Evidence Base: Neurobiological Research 115

Genetics 116

Neuroimaging 116

Neurology 118

Neuropsychology 119

Psychophysiology 121

Endocrinology 123

Moral Development 124

Nutrition 124

Forensic Applications of Developmental Neurobiological Research 125

Conclusions 128

Further Reading 129

References 129

9 The Developmental Evidence Base: Prevention 141
David P. Farrington

Introduction 141

Family]Based Prevention 143

School]Based Prevention 145

Peer Programmes 148

Skills Training 149

Communities that Care 150

Recent UK Developments 151

Conclusions 152

Further Reading 154

References 154

10 The Developmental Evidence Base: Psychosocial Research 161
David P. Farrington

Introduction 161

Individual Factors 163

Family Factors 166

Social Factors 171

School Influences 172

Community Influences 173

Conclusions 174

Further Reading 174

References 175

11 The Developmental Evidence Base: Desistance 183
Lila Kazemian and David P. Farrington

Current State of Knowledge on Desistance 183

Unresolved Issues in Desistance Research 190

Conclusions 193

Further Reading 194

References 194

12 Crisis Negotiation 201
David A. Crighton

Conceptual Issues in Crisis Negotiation 201

To Negotiate or Not to Negotiate 204

Goals of Crisis Negotiation 204

Crisis Negotiation and Terrorism 206

Applying Principled Negotiation during Terrorist Incidents 207

The Process of Negotiation with Terrorists 208

The Experience of Hostages 208

Crisis Negotiation–The Evidence 209

Conclusions 211

Notes 211

Further Reading 212

References 212

13 Aspects of Diagnosed Mental Illness and Offending 215
David Pilgrim

The Social Context of Rule Transgressions: Normal and Abnormal Offenders 215

Overlaps and Tensions between Psychiatric and Psychological Knowledge 217

Psychological and Psychiatric Approaches to Mental Illness in Forensic Settings 220

The Problematic Relationship between Diagnosed Mental Illness and Risk 221

Conclusions 223

Further Reading 224

References 224

14 Intellectual Disability: Assessment 227
William R. Lindsay and John L. Taylor

The Context of Practice in Forensic Learning Disabilities 227

Mental Health Legislation 228

Learning Disability and Crime 229

Applications of Psychology to Processes within the Justice System 235

Working with Offenders with ID 237

Conclusions on Assessment 244

Further Reading 245

References 245

15 Intellectual Disability: Treatment and Management 253
William R. Lindsay, John L. Taylor and Amanda Michie

Treatment for Specific Needs 254

Conclusions 260

Further Reading 261

References 261

16 Personality Disorders: Assessment and Treatment 265
Conor Duggan and Richard Howard

Issues Surrounding the Concept of PD 265

Measures of Interpersonal Style 270

Practical Considerations 271

Summary: Assessment of PD 271

Procedural Recommendations in Assessing PD 272

Treatment of PD: Some Caveats 272

Treatment Issues 273

Current Issues in the Assessment and Treatment of PD 275

Notes 276

Further Reading 276

References 277

17 Personality Disorders: Their Relation to Offending 281
Richard Howard and Conor Duggan

Is Personality Disorder Linked to Offending? 281

How is Personality Disorder Linked to Violence? 282

Is ‘Psychopathy’ Related to Violence? 283

Towards a Model of Personality Disorder and Violence 285

Notes 287

Further Reading 287

References 288

18 Beyond ‘Disorder’: A Psychological Model of Mental Health and Well-Being 291
Peter Kinderman

Drop the Language of Disorder 291

‘Oppositional Defiant Disorder’ … Really? 293

Moving Beyond the Concept of ‘Abnormality’ 294

There is an Alternative to Diagnosis 295

Operationally Defined Problem Lists 295

The Drugs Do Not Work 296

Pathways to Mental Health 298

A Psychological Model of Mental Health and Well]Being 298

Notes 299

Further Reading 299

References 299

19 Substance Use Disorders 301
Michael Gossop

Consumption Behaviours, Problems and Dependence 301

Drugs and Crime 302

Assessment of Substance Use Disorders 303

Management of Detoxification 303

Treatment 305

Further Complications 309

Notes 311

Further Reading 311

References 312

20 Suicide and Self-Injury in Prisoners 315
Tammi Walker

Context 315

Background 315

The Prison Population and Suicide 316

Suicide in Remand Prisoners 316

Suicide in Sentenced Prisoners 317

Suicide in Young Prisoners 318

Suicide in Released Prisoners 318

Suicide in Women Prisoners 319

Limitations of Suicide Research in Prison Settings 319

Psychosocial and Situational Risk Factors for Suicide Common to Prisons 320

Self-Injury in Prisoners 320

Risk Factors for Self-Injury in the Prison Population 321

Current Interventions and Treatments in Custody 322

Prison Staff Responses to Prisoners at Risk of Harm to Self 323

Conclusion 324

Further Reading 325

References 325

21 Working with Children and Adolescents with Harmful Sexual Behaviour 329
Jackie Walton

Definitional Issues and the Use of Language 329

Historical Context Setting 330

Assessment and Treatment Interventions with Adolescents 331

Assessment and Treatment Work with Children 334

Conclusions 337

Further Reading 337

References 338

22 Sexually Harmful Adults 341
Belinda Brooks-Gordon

Who and What is a Sexually Harmful Adult? 341

Prevalence and Incidence of Sexually Harmful Behaviours 341

Theories of Sexually Harmful Behaviour 342

Assessing the Risk of Sexually Harmful Adults 343

Interventions for Sexually Harmful Adults 344

Measuring Interventions 345

Past Meta-Analyses of Interventions with Sexually Harmful Adults 345

Improving the Quality of Treatment Outcome 347

Cluster Randomization 347

When the ‘Sex Offender’ is Not Sexually Harmful 348

The Politicization of Sexual Harm 348

Sexual Harm and the Culture of Fear 349

Conclusions 350

Notes 350

Further Reading 350

References 351

23 Gang Members: Group Processes and Social Cognitive Explanations 353
Jane L. Wood

Gang Membership 353

Gang Members: Delinquency Levels 353

Becoming a Gang Member: Group Processes 355

Gang Identity and Identifying with the Gang 355

Conformity, Pluralistic Ignorance and Cohesion 356

Intergroup Conflict and Status Enhancement 357

Being a Gang Member: Social Cognitive Processes 359

Moral Disengagement 359

Offence Supportive Cognitions 360

Rumination, Displaced Aggression and Entitativity 361

Conclusions 364

Further Reading 364

References 365

24 Genocide and Hate Crime 369
William Jacks and Joanna R. Adler

What is Genocide? 369

What is Hate Crime? 371

Psychological Explanations of Genocide and Hate Crime 373

Nurturing Prejudice: Demonizing and Degrading the Out]Group 374

Hate Crime: Beyond Group Explanations 375

Acting Out Prejudices: Psychological Processes that Facilitate Violence in Genocide 376

Passive Bystanders 376

Characteristics of Cultures Disposed to Genocide and Hate Crime 377

Rehabilitation of Hate Crime Offenders 378

Preventing Genocide 379

Summary 380

Notes 380

Further Reading 380

References 381

25 Restorative Justice as a Psychological Treatment: Healing Victims, Reintegrating Offenders 385
Lawrence W. Sherman and Heather Strang

Introduction 385

Varieties of Restorative Justice 386

Theories of Change for Victims and Offenders 388

Delivering RJ Conferencing 389

Research on Restorative Justice: The Gold Standard 391

Effects of RJ Conferencing on Offenders 394

Effects of RJ Conferencing on Victims 396

Evidence on Other RJ Options 397

RJ and Forensic Psychology 398

Notes 399

Further Reading 399

References 401

PART III Et hical and Legal Issues 403

26 Ethical Issues in Forensic Psychological Policy and Practice 405
Graham J. Towl

Philosophical Roots 405

Ethical Guidance for Professionals 407

Power Relationships 411

Conclusions 412

Further Reading 412

References 413

27 Risk and Resilience 415
Graham J. Towl

The Concept of Risk in Forensic Psychological Policy and Practice 416

Do We Need to Think More about Ethical Issues in Risk Assessment? 417

Risk and Resilience 420

Biases in Human Decision-Making 421

Implications for Future Forensic Practice: Risk and Resilience 422

Further Reading 423

References 423

28 Structural Violence in Forensic Psychiatry 425
Brian A. Thomas-Peter

Suffering in Forensic Psychiatry 426

Inquiries into Harm Done to Patients 427

Major Inquiries: Lessons Learned and Not Learned 427

Incidents, Complaints and Root Cause Analysis 430

Conclusion 434

Notes 434

Further Reading 435

References 435

29 Concluding Themes: Psychological Perspectives and Futures 437
Graham J. Towl

Introduction 437

Contextual Themes 438

Psychological Perspectives 440

Futures 441

References 442

Index of Names 443

Index of Subjects 453