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Foundation Design: Theory and Practice

Foundation Design: Theory and Practice

N. S. V. Kamesware Rao

ISBN: 978-0-470-82815-1

Dec 2010

544 pages



In Foundation Design: Theory and Practice, Professor N. S. V. Kameswara Rao covers the key aspects of the subject, including principles of testing, interpretation, analysis, soil-structure interaction modeling, construction guidelines, and applications to rational design. Rao presents a wide array of numerical methods used in analyses so that readers can employ and adapt them on their own. Throughout the book the emphasis is on practical application, training readers in actual design procedures using the latest codes and standards in use throughout the world.
  • Presents updated design procedures in light of revised codes and standards, covering:
    • American Concrete Institute (ACI) codes
    • Eurocode 7
    • Other British Standard-based codes including Indian codes
  • Provides background materials for easy understanding of the topics, such as:
    • Code provisions for reinforced concrete
    • Pile design and construction
    • Machine foundations and construction practices
    • Tests for obtaining the design parameters
  • Features subjects not covered in other foundation design texts:
    • Soil-structure interaction approaches using analytical, numerical, and finite element methods
    • Analysis and design of circular and annular foundations
    • Analysis and design of piles and groups subjected to general loads and movements
  • Contains worked out examples to illustrate the analysis and design
  • Provides several problems for practice at the end of each chapter
  • Lecture materials for instructors available on the book's companion website

Foundation Design is designed for graduate students in civil engineering and geotechnical engineering. The book is also ideal for advanced undergraduate students, contractors, builders, developers, heavy machine manufacturers, and power plant engineers. Students in mechanical engineering will find the chapter on machine foundations helpful for structural engineering applications.

Companion website for instructor resources:



1 Introduction.

1.1 Foundations, Soils and Superstructures.

1.2 Classification of Foundations.

1.3 Selection of Type of Foundation.

1.4 General Guidelines for Design.

1.5 Modeling, Parameters, Analysis and Design Criteria.

1.6 Soil Maps.

2 Engineering Properties of Soil.

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Basic Soil Relations.

2.3 Soil Classification.

2.4 Permeability.

2.5 Over Consolidation Ratio.

2.6 Relative Density.

2.7 Terzaghi's Effective Stress Principle.

2.8 Compaction of Soils.

2.9 Consolidation and Compressibility.

2.10 Shear Strength of Soils.

2.11 Soil Exploration and Sampling.

2.12 Site Investigation — Boring, Sampling and Testing.

2.13 Split Spoon Sampler and Standard Penetration Test.

2.14 Cone Penetration Test.

2.15 Field Vane Shear Test.

2.16 Other In Situ Tests.

2.17 Summary.

2.18 Examples.

3 Bearing Capacity, Settlement, Stresses and Lateral Pressures in Soils.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations.

3.3 Bearing Capacity of Deep Foundations.

3.4 Correlation of UBC and ASP with SPT Values and CPT Values.

3.5 UBC and Probable Settlements Using Field Plate Load Test.

3.6 Elastic Stress and Displacement Distribution in Soils.

3.7 Settlement Analysis.

3.8 Lateral Earth Pressure.

3.9 Coefficient of Earth Pressure at Rest.

3.10 Other Theories of Lateral Pressure.

3.11 Examples.

4 Rational Design of Shallow Foundations.

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Shallow Foundations.

4.3 Conventional Design and Rational Design.

4.4 Procedures for the Design of Footings.

4.5 Conventional Structural Design of Footings.

4.6 Foundations in Difficult Soil Formations.

4.7 Modeling Soil Structure Interactions for Rational Design of Foundations.

4.8 Evaluation of Spring Constant in Winkler's Soil Model.

44.9 Soil–Structure Interaction Equations.

4.10 Summary.

5 Analysis of Footings on Elastic Foundations.

5.1 Introduction 165

5.2 Literature Review.

5.3 Analysis of BEF.

5.4 Infinite Beams on Elastic Foundations.

5.5 Finite Beams on Elastic Foundations.

5.6 Plates on Elastic Foundations.

5.7 Summary.

6 Numerical and Finite Difference Methods.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Trial Solutions with Undetermined Parameters.

6.3 Finite Difference Method.

6.4 FDM Applications to General BEF Problems.

6.5 Boundary Conditions.

6.6 Calculation of Bending Moments.

6.7 Shear Forces.

6.8 Vertical Reactions.

6.9 Simplification for Prismatic Beams.

6.10 FDM for Rectangular Plates on Elastic Foundations.

6.11 FDM for Circular and Annular Plates on Elastic Foundations.

6.12 BEF Software Package.

6.13 Summary.

7 Finite Element Method.

7.1 General Philosophy.

7.2 Finite Element Procedure.

7.3 Formulation of Finite Element Characteristics (Stiffness Analysis).

7.4 Beam Elements.

7.5 Plate Elements for Bending Theory.

7.6 Summary.

7.7 Examples.

8 Parameters and Criteria for Foundation Design.

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Design Considerations.

8.3 Codes, Practices and Standards.

8.4 Design Soil Pressure.

8.5 Gross and Net Values of the Safe Bearing Capacity and Allowable Soil Pressure.

8.6 Presumptive Bearing Capacity.

8.7 Settlements and Differential Settlements.

8.8 Cracks Due to Uneven Settlement.

8.9 Suggestions to Reduce Large Differential Settlements.

9 Deep Foundations – Piles, Drilled Piers, Caissons and Pile-Raft Systems.

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Piles.

9.3 Functions of Piles.

9.4 Design of Pile Foundations.

9.5 Type and Length of Piles.

9.6 Pile Load Capacity.

9.7 Lateral Load Capacity of Piles.

9.8 Stresses on Lower Strata Due to Pile Foundations.

9.9 Settlement Analysis.

9.10 Design of Piles and Pile Groups.

9.11 Drilled Piers or Drilled Caissons.

9.12 Non-Drilled Caissons.

9.13 Pile-Raft Systems.

9.14 Examples.

10 Design of Piles and Pile Groups.

10.1 Introduction.

10.2 Use of Pile Foundations.

10.3 Types of Piles and Pile Groups.

10.4 Efficiency of Pile Groups.

10.5 Analysis and Design of Pile Foundations.

10.6 Lateral Capacity of Piles.

10.7 Pile Group.

10.8 Settlement of Piles.

10.9 Settlement Under Lateral Load.

10.10 Design of Pile Caps.

10.11 Uplift.

10.12 Batter Piles.

10.13 Design of Pile Foundations.

10.14 Summary of Assumptions and Guidelines for Design.

10.15 Example.

10.16 Construction Guidelines.

11 Machine Foundations.

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 Types of Machine Foundations.

11.3 General Requirements of Machine Foundations and Design Criteria.

11.4 Dynamic Loads.

11.5 Physical Modeling and Response Analysis.

11.6 Analysis by Lysmer and Richart.

11.7 General Analysis of Machine–Foundation–Soil Systems Using Analog Models.

11.8 General Equations of Motion.

11.9 Methods of Solution.

11.10 General Remarks.

11.11 Framed Foundations.

12 Structural Design of Foundations.

12.1 Introduction.

12.2 Analysis of Foundations.

12.3 Structural Design.

12.4 Isolated Footings.

12.5 Wall Footings.

12.6 Combined Footings.

12.7 Strap Footings.

12.8 Raft Foundations.

12.9 Circular and Annular Footings.

12.10 Construction Guidelines for Footings.

12.11 Construction of Raft Foundations.

12.12 Examples of Structural Design.

Author Index.

Subject Index.