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Foundations and Change in Early Childhood Education

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Foundations and Change in Early Childhood Education

Martha T. Dever, Renee C. Falconer

ISBN: 978-0-471-47247-6 March 2007 336 Pages

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Description

This text is designed to aid understanding in early childhood issues and best practices, and ways to advocate on behalf of young children. Covering historical evolution of early childhood education with a primary focus on issues and practices today. Five themes are central to the text and woven throughout the chapters. The first and most prominent theme is children. The other themes include: advocacy, diversity, social-political environments, and professional development.

Related Resources

Part 1: Evolution of Early Childhood Education

1 View of Childhood: Past and Present 1

Ancient View of Childhood 2

Ancient Native American View of Childhood 3

Ancient Greek View of Childhood 4

Ancient Roman View of Childhood 4

Children as Miniature Adults 5

Child Guidance 6

Reformation Era (1400–1600) 6

Children as Sinful 6

African-American and Native American Children 6

Child Guidance 7

Native Americans 7

European Americans 8

Children as Blank Slates 8

Children as Children 8

Jean-Jacques Rousseau 8

Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi 9

Children as Children Continues 10

Native American Children 11

Child Guidance 11

African-American Children 11

Standardization of Childhood 11

Native American Children 12

Children with Disabilities 12

Child Guidance 12

Modern Views of Childhood 13

The Sensual Child 13

The Malleable Child 13

The Hurried Child 13

Child Guidance 14

Behavior Modification 15

Democratic Behavior Guidance 15

Children Today 16

Miniature Adults 16

Readiness 16

Child-Centered Learning Environments 16

Children as Our Future 16

Summary 17

Enrichment Activities 17

Self-Assessment 18

For Further Reading 18

References 19

2 History of Social, Political, and Philosophical Trends 21

Precolonial Times 22

Native Americans 22

European Influence 22

Colonial Era 24

Social-Political Environment 24

Early Childhood Education 25

Dame Schools 25

Latin Grammar Schools 25

Industrial Era 25

Social, Political Environment 25

Common Schools 26

Origin of the Testing Movement 27

Educating African-Americans 28

Educating Native Americans 28

Early Childhood Education 28

Origin of Kindergarten 28

Progressive Movement 30

Social, Political Environment 30

The Testing Movement 31

Educational Theories 31

Progressive Educators 31

Early Childhood Programs 32

Schooling for Children of Color 32

Schooling for Children with Disabilities 33

Nursery Schools 33

Bank Street 33

Kindergarten 33

Montessori Education 34

The Child Study Movement 34

Social, Political Environment 34

The Testing Movement 35

Early Childhood Theories 35

Constructivism 35

Behaviorism 37

Self-Actualization Theory 38

Maturationism 38

Early Childhood Programs 39

Children with Disabilities 39

Waldorf Schools 39

Post World War II and the Great Society 39

Social, Political Environment 39

The Great Society 40

Early Childhood Theories 41

Behaviorism 42

Psychosocial Theory 42

Early Childhood Programs 42

Reggio Emilia 42

High/Scope 44

Head Start 44

Children with Disabilities 44

Accountability Movement 45

Social, Political Environment 45

The Testing Movement 45

Early Childhood Programs 46

Open Education 46

Electronic Age 47

Social, Political Environment 47

The Testing Movement 47

Early Childhood Theories 48

Early Childhood Programs 49

Summary 49

Enrichment Activities 50

For Further Reading 51

Professional Development Resources 51

Self-Assessment 51

References 51

3 Governance of Early Care and Education: Past and Present 53

Oversight for Early Care and Education 54

Administrative Reform 54

Scientific Management 55

Nursery Schools 55

Governance of Early Care and Education Today 55

Critique of Centralized Governance 56

Federal Policies Affecting Early Childhood Education 57

Postwar Years 57

Children with Disabilities 58

The Era of the Great Society 59

The Era of Accountability 59

Entering the Twenty-First Century 59

The History of Bilingual Education 61

The Relationship of Church and State 62

Colonial Era 62

Industrial Era 63

History of Roman Catholic Schools 64

The Progressive Era 64

The Twentieth Century 65

Separation of Church and State Today 66

Summary 67

Enrichment Activities 67

For Further Reading 67

Professional Development Resources 68

Self-Assessment 68

References 68

Part 2: Early Childhood

4 The Role of Early Childhood

Educators in Children’s Lives 69

Preparing to Be an Early Childhood Educator 70

Child Care and Pre-K Programs 70

Grades K–3 70

Professional Development 71

Philosophies of Learning 72

Brain-Based Development 73

Multiple Intelligences 74

Constructivism 76

Behaviorism 76

Maturation 77

Appropriate Practices 78

Developmentally Appropriate Practice 78

Culturally Relevant Practice 79

The Value of Play 79

Play and Social–Emotional Development 81

Play and Cognitive Development 82

Your Role in Supporting Children’s Play 82

Support from Outside the Play 82

Support from Inside the Play 83

Curriculum Development 83

Infants and Toddlers 84

Children Ages 3–8 84

Integrated Curriculum 84

Advocacy 87

Summary 88

Enrichment Activities 88

For Further Reading 89

Professional Development Resources 89

Self-Assessment 90

References 90

5 Infants and Toddlers 91

Developmental Characteristics of Infants and Toddlers 92

Language Development 92

Theories of Language Acquisition 92

Stages of Language Development 96

Reading to Infants and Toddlers 97

Language Is Cultural 98

Delayed Language Development 98

Cognitive Development 99

Egocentrism 100

Reasoning 100

Physical Development 100

Social–Emotional Development 101

Impulse Control 101

Attachment 101

Temperament 102

Play 103

Supporting Infant and Toddler Play 103

Programs for Infants and Toddlers 104

Child Care 104

Reggio Emilia 105

Early Head Start 106

Montessori 106

Creating an Antibias Environment 107

Summary 109

Enrichment Activities 109

For Further Reading 110

Professional Development Resources 110

Self-Assessment 110

References 111

6 Preschool and Kindergarten 113

Developmentally and Culturally Appropriate Programs for Three- to Five-Year-Olds 114

Language Development 114

Cognitive Development 116

Social–Emotional Development 117

Physical Development 118

Programs for Three- to Five-Year-Olds 118

Head Start 119

High/Scope 121

Bank Street 123

Reggio Emilia 123

Waldorf 124

Montessori 125

Teaching Antibias Attitudes 127

Child Care 128

Types of Child Care 128

Center Based Child Care 128

Employer Sponsored Care 129

Home Child Care 129

Church or Temple Care Centers 129

Nannies 129

Quality in Child Care 129

Funding Quality Care 130

Kindergarten 130

Readiness 131

Retention and Academic Redshirting 132

Benefits Cannot Be Consistently

Substantiated 132

Sociocultural Issues 132

Developmental Kindergartens and Transitional First Grade 133

Entrance Age 133

An Alternative 133

Half-Day/Full-Day Kindergarten 134

Kindergarten Curriculum 134

Summary 135

Enrichment Activities 136

For Further Reading 137

Professional Development Resources 137

Self-Assessment 137

References 138

7 Early Childhood: The Primary Grades 139

Developmental Considerations for Primary Grade Children 140

Language and Literacy Development 140

Cognitive Development 140

Physical Development 143

Social–Emotional Development 144

Antibias Classrooms in the Primary Grades 144

Literacy Learning 144

Antibias Instructional Strategies 146

Integrating Content about Diversity into the Curriculum 147

Curriculum and Effective Teaching in the Primary Grades 150

Child-Centered Environment 151

Explicit Instruction 151

Direct Instruction 151

Balanced Literacy 151

National Reading Panel Report 153

Extension of Programs for 3- to 5-Year-Olds into Primary Grades 153

Play in the Primary Grades 153

Before and After School Programs 154

Classroom and Calendar Configurations in Primary Grades 154

Multiage Grouping 154

Looping 155

Homeschooling 155

Year-round and Traditional Schools 156

Educating Homeless Children 157

Summary 158

Enrichment Activities 158

For Further Reading 159

Professional Development Resources 159

Self-Assessment 159

References 160

Part 3: Guiding and Assessing Young Children

8 Guiding Children’s Behavior in Early Childhood Settings 161

Encouraging Environments 162

Infants 162

Toddlers 162

Preschoolers and Kindergarteners 163

Primary Grade Children 166

Managing Environments and Guiding Behavior 168

General Considerations for Guiding Behavior 169

Choices 169

Praise 169

Punishment 170

Developmentally Appropriate Guidance Strategies 170

Infants 170

Toddlers 171

Preschoolers and Kindergarteners 173

Primary Grade Children 175

Children with Special Needs 177

Cultural Considerations 178

Individualism vs. Collectivism 179

Understanding Roles 180

Supporting Nonviolent Behavior 181

Bullying 183

Summary 184

Enrichment Activities 184

For Further Reading 185

Self-Assessment 185

References 186

9 Assessing the Child in Early Childhood Settings 187

Types of Assessment in Early Childhood Settings 188

Observation 188

Anecdotal Records and Field Notes 189

Audio/Video and Photographic Recordings 190

Checklists 191

Portfolios 191

Reflection 192

Purposes 193

Age Appropriate Portfolios 193

Home Visits 194

The Work Sampling System 194

Standardized Tests 195

Linking Assessment and Curriculum 195

Assessment Issues 196

Align Assessment with the Nature of the Child 196

Infants and Toddlers 197

Preschool, Kindergarten, and Primary Grade Children 197

Standardized Testing in Early Childhood Settings 197

Developmental Considerations 197

Inappropriate Labels 198

High-Stakes Testing 198

Cultural Issues in Assessment 199

Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Children 200

Barriers to Accurate Assessment 200

Culturally Appropriate Assessment 201

Assessing Children and Programs 202

Summary 203

Enrichment Activities 204

For Further Reading 205

Self-Assessment 205

References 205

10 Children Who Are Linguistically Diverse 207

The Challenge 208

The Controversy 208

Linguistic Differences 210

Dialects 210

Dialect Errors: Points to Consider 210

Black English 211

Role of the Early Childhood Educator 211

Accents 212

Sign Language 212

Speakers of Languages Other than English 213

Bilingual Education 213

English as a Second Language 214

Nonverbal Communication 215

Acquiring a Second Language 215

Theories of Second Language Acquisition 215

Language Acquisition Stages 216

Factors Affecting Second Language

Acquisition: Social, Emotional, and Cognitive 220

Loss of the First Language 222

Summary 223

Enrichment Activities 224

For Further Reading 224

Professional Development Resource 224

Self-Assessment 225

References 225

Part 4: Supporting and Advocating for Young Children in the Twenty-first Century

11 Children with Special Needs 227

Causes of Exceptionalities 228

Genetic 229

Prenatal Conditions 229

Birth and Postbirth Complications 229

Exceptionalities and the Role of Early Childhood Educators 229

Assessment of Exceptionalities 230

Labeling 231

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 231

The Role of Early Childhood Educators 232

Autism 232

The Role of Early Childhood Educators 233

Behavior Disorders 233

The Role of Early Childhood Educators 233

Developmental Delays 233

The Role of Early Childhood Educators 234

Down Syndrome 234

The Role of Early Childhood Educators 234

Gifted 235

Role of Early Childhood Educators 235

Language and Hearing Disabilities 236

The Role of Early Childhood Educators 236

Learning Disabilities 237

The Role of Early Childhood Educators 238

Physical Disabilities 238

The Role of Early Childhood Educators 238

Visual Disabilities 239

The Role of Early Childhood Educators 239

Early Childhood Environments for Children with Disabilities 239

Inclusion 239

Infants and Toddlers 240

Preschool and Kindergarten 240

Primary Grades 241

Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education 242

Abuse and Neglect 242

The Role of Early Childhood Educators 243

Provide Quality Care and Education 243

Develop Reciprocal Relationships with Families 243

Recognize When Children Are at Risk 243

Understand and Assist Families 244

Build on Strengths 244

Be Informed 244

Antibias Environments for Children with Special Needs 244

Teaching about Differences 245

Summary 246

Enrichment Activities 246

For Further Reading 247

Professional Development Resources 247

Self-Assessment 248

References 248

12 The Impact of Environments and Technology on Young Children 249

Indoor Environments 250

Child-Centeredness 250

Scheduling Considerations 252

Room Arrangements 254

Infants and Toddlers 254

Preschool and Kindergarten 255

Primary Grades 257

Inclusive Environments 259

Outdoor Environments 259

Gross Motor Activity 260

Creative Play 260

Appreciation of Nature 260

The Social Environment 260

Teaching for Social Justice 261

Teach Questioning 262

Perspective Taking 262

Rethinking Curriculum 263

Take Action 264

Inequity in School Funding 264

Quality Schools for All 267

The Role of Technology in Early Childhood Environments 268

NAEYC Position on Technology and Young Children 268

Media Violence 269

Technology and Parenting 270

Antibias Technology Environments 271

Equitable Access 271

Assistive Technology 271

Summary 271

Enrichment Activities 272

For Further Reading 273

Professional Development Resources 273

Self-Assessment 273

References 274

13 Children and Their Families 275

Diverse Family Beliefs,Attitudes, and Practices 276

Stages of Cultural Identity 276

Cultural Progression in Our Diverse Nation 277

European American Families 277

African-American Families 278

Asian-American Families 279

Biracial Multiethnic Families 280

Gay and Lesbian Families 280

Hispanic American Families 280

Jewish American Families 281

Native American Families 282

Parents with Disabilities 283

Children of Divorce and Blended Families 283

Families Living in Poverty 284

Poverty and Resources 284

Poverty and Language 285

The Role of Early Childhood Educators 285

Involving Parents from Diverse Populations 286

Types of Parental Involvement 287

Barriers to Parent Involvement 288

Antibias Environment 289

Family Literacy 290

Using Community Resources 290

Family Friendliness 291

Resources 292

Invited Guests 293

Summary 293

Enrichment Activities 293

For Further Reading 294

Professional Development Resources 295

Self-Assessment 295

References 296

14 Issues and Advocacy in Early Childhood in the Twenty-first Century 297

View of the Child 298

Sociopolitical Influences 299

Poverty 299

Health and Well-being 300

Commerce, Industry, and Business 303

Metaphor of the Market for Schooling 303

High-Stakes Testing 305

Diversity 306

Teaching in a Diverse Society 306

Advocacy 308

Professional Development 309

Curriculum 310

Summary 311

Enrichment Activities 311

Self-Assessment 312

For Further Reading 312

Professional Development Resources 313

References 313

Index 314

Focus on Children: exemplifies characteristics of young children based on the authors actual observations.