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Foundations for Ecological Research West of the Antarctic Peninsula

Foundations for Ecological Research West of the Antarctic Peninsula

Robin M. Ross (Editor), Eileen E. Hofmann (Editor), Langdon B. Quetin (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-66828-3 March 2013 American Geophysical Union 448 Pages


Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Antarctic Research Series, Volume 70.

The Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program was established in 1981 by the United States National Science Foundation in recognition of the need to study ecological processes over time spans longer than those of most research grants. The LTER Network now consists of 18 sites that span a variety of ecosystem types in the continental United States, Alaska, Puerto Rico, and Antarctica. The addition of the Palmer LTER at Palmer Station, Antarctica in October 1990 extended the geographical and ecological range of the LTER Network and provided the opportunity to link physical and ecological processes in the northern and southern hemispheres.

One criterion for establishment of a LTER site is the existence of historical data and observations that can provide a basis for guiding research programs. Thus, the intent of this volume is to bring together meteorological, hydrographical, biological and ecological observations made in the general area west of the Antarctic Peninsula and to discuss the processes underlying the observations. This compilation of available data and observations in conjunction with the present understanding of processes provides the foundation for long?]term studies of the ecosystem in the western Antarctic Peninsula region.

The Antarctic Research Series
Board of Associate Editors  xi

Eileen E. Hofmann, Robin M. Ross, and Langdon B. Quetin  xiii

Historical Perspective

Historical Perspective of Research in the Antarctic Peninsula Region
Sayed Z. El-Sayed  1

Habitat Description

Terrestrial and Freshwater Biotic Components of the Western Antarctic Peninsula
RonaM I. Lewis Smith  15

Water Mass Distribution and Circulation West of the Antarctic Peninsula and Including Bransfield Strait
Eileen E. Hofmann, John M. Klinck, Cathy M. Lascara, and David A. Smith  61

Spatial and Temporal Variability of Western Antarctic Peninsula Sea Ice Coverage
S. E. Stammerjohn and R. C. Smith  81

Surface Air Temperature Variations in the Western Antarctic Peninsula Region
Raymond C. Smith, Sharon E. Stammerjohn, and Karen S. Baker 105

Benthic Marine Habitats in Antarctica
Andrew Clarke  123

Accumulation of Glacial Marine Sediments in Fjords of the Antarctic Peninsula and Their
Use as Late Holocene Paleoenvironmental Indicators
Eugene W. Domack and Charles E. McClennen  135

Distributions of Biological Populations

Pelagic and Sea Ice Microbial Communities
David L. Garrison and Sylvie Mathot  155

Phytoplankton: Quantitative and Qualitative Assessments
R. R. Bidigare, J. L. Iriarte, S.-H. Kang, D. Karentz, M. E. Ondrusek, and G. A. Fryxell  173

Distribution of Antarctic Krill and Dominant Zooplankton West of the Antarctic Peninsula
Robin M. Ross, Langdon B. Quetin, and Cathy M. Lascara  199

The Distribution of Antarctic Marine Benthic Communities
Andrew Clarke  219

Midwater Fish Ecology
Adolf K. Kellermann  231

Factors Controlling the Distribution of Seabirds: Winter-Summer Heterogeneity in the
Distribution of Addlie Penguin Populations
William R. Fraser and Wayne Z. Trivelpiece  257

The Breeding Biology and Distribution of Addlie Penguins: Adaptations to Environmental Variability
WayneZ . Trivelpiecea nd William R. Fraser  273

Marine Mammals of the Southern Ocean
Daniel P. Costa and Daniel E. Crocker  287

Control of Biological Distributions

Microbiological Oceanography in the Region West of the Antarctic Peninsula: Microbial
Dynamics, Nitrogen Cycle and Carbon Flux
David M. Karl, James R. Christian, John E. Dore, and Ricardo M. Letelier  303

Phytoplankton Biomass and Productivity in the Western Antarctic Peninsula Region
Raymond C. Smith, Heidi Dierssen, and Maria Vernet  333

Factors Affecting Distribution and Abundance of Zooplankton, With an Emphasis on
Antarctic Krill, Euphausia superba
Langdon B. Quetin, Robin M. Ross, Thomas K. Frazer, and Karen L. Haberman  357

Marine Benthic Populations in Antarctica: Patterns and Processes
Andrew Clarke  373

Human Disturbance

Human Activity and Disturbance: Building an Antarctic Site Inventory
Ron Naveen  389

Marine Disturbance-Contaminants
Mahlon C. Kennicutt II and Susanne J. McDonald  401

Marine Disturbances-Commercial Fishing
David J. Agnew and Steve Nicol  417


The Western Antarctic Peninsula Region: Summary of Environmental and Ecological Processes
The Palmer LTER Group  437