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Foundations for Global Health Practice

Foundations for Global Health Practice

Lori DiPrete Brown

ISBN: 978-1-118-60363-5

Jan 2018, Jossey-Bass

576 pages

$72.99

Description

An essential introduction to global health in the modern world

Foundations for Global Health Practice offers a comprehensive introduction to global health with a focus on ethical engagement and participatory approaches. With a multi-sectoral perspective grounded in Sustainable Development Goals, the text prepares students for engagement in health care and public health and goes beyond traditional global health texts to include chapters on mental health, agriculture and nutrition, water and sanitation, and climate change. In addition to presenting core concepts, the book outlines principles for practice that enable students and faculty to plan and prepare for fieldwork in global health. The book also offers perspectives from global health practitioners from a range of disciplinary and geographic perspectives.

Exercises, readings, discussion guides and information about global health competencies and careers facilitate personal discernment and enable students to systematically develop their own professional goals and strategies for enriching, respectful, and ethical global health engagement.

  • Understand the essential concepts, systems, and principles of global health
  • Engage in up-to-date discussion of global health challenges and solutions
  • Learn practical skills for engagement in health care and beyond
  • Explore individual values and what it means to be an agent for change

Prevention, cooperation, equity, and social justice are the central themes of global health, a field that emphasizes the interdisciplinary, cross-sector, and cross-boundary nature of health care on a global scale. As the world becomes ever smaller and society becomes more and more interconnected, the broad view becomes as critical as the granular nature of practice. Foundations for Global Health Practice provides a complete and highly relevant introduction to this rich and rewarding field.

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List of Figures, Tables, and Boxes xix

Preface xxii

About the Author xxv

Contributors xxvii

Acknowledgments xlv

Introduction xlvii

Part I Global Health Concepts

1 Developing a Global Perspective 3
Lori DiPrete Brown

Sharing Perspectives in a Diverse Learning Community 5

Sources of Global Health Information 7

Literature and the Arts 21

Chapter Summary 24

Review Questions 25

Key Terms 25

References 25

2 What Is Global Health? 27
Lori DiPrete Brown

Global Health: An Evolving Concept 28

Definitions of Global Health 33

What Are the Challenges to Human Health? 38

Measuring Global Health Status 39

Social Determinants of Health and the Social-Ecological Model 46

Chapter Summary 51

Review Questions 52

Key Terms 52

References 53

3 Global Health Care Systems and Universal Health Care 57
Lori DiPrete Brown

Health Systems and How They Work 58

Universal Health Care 65

Chapter Summary 69

Review Questions 69

Key Terms 69

References 69

4 Global Health Policy and the Sustainable Development Goals 71
Lori DiPrete Brown

From Alma-Ata to the Millennium Development Goals 72

The Sustainable Development Goals 76

Chapter Summary 80

Key Terms 81

Exercise: Young Leaders Speak Out 81

Review Questions 81

References 81

5 Global Health Challenges for the 21st Century 83
Sean McKee and Katherine Leach-Kemon

What Is the Global Burden of Disease? 84

How to Access and Use GBD Findings 88

Main Findings from the GBD Study 91

Using the GBD to Inform Health Policy in the Coming Years 102

Chapter Summary 104

Key Terms 104

Review Questions 104

Suggested Reading 105

References 105

6 The Right to Health and a Framework Convention on Global Health 107
Eric A. Friedman, Fernanda Alonso, Ana Ayala, Andrew Hennessy-Strahs, and Sarah Roache

The Right to Health 109

A Framework Convention on Global Health 111

Precedents and Examples of Governance for Global Health 116

Chapter Summary 119

Key Terms 120

Review Questions 120

Suggested Reading 120

References 120

7 Global Mental Health, Behavioral Medicine, and Wellness 125
Giuseppe Raviola

Defining Global Mental Health, Behavioral Medicine, and Wellness 126

Burden of Illness and the Treatment Gap: The Need for Integration 128

Gaps in Governance, Policies, and Financing: The Need for Systems 131

Strategies for Program Design and Sustained Service Delivery: The Need to

Strengthen Existing Health Systems 136

Global Health Worker Wellness: The Need for Professional and Personal

Development 137

Conclusion 138

Chapter Summary 139

Review Questions 139

Key Terms 139

References 140

8 Water, Sanitation, Hygiene, and Health 143
Eric Hettler

Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene: Contextual Considerations 144

Chapter Summary 163

Key Terms 163

Review Questions 163

Suggested Reading 164

References 164

9 Food, Agriculture, and Nutrition 167
Michele Joseph Aquino

Global Food System, Local Solutions 168

The Farm Spectrum 169

Introduction to Food Security 173

Waste and Wealth 178

Agricultural Technology and Public Health 180

Sustainability and Equity: Highlights from Successful Programs 184

Chapter Summary 186

Key Terms 187

Review Questions 187

Exercise: Thinking Critically about Genetically Engineered Crops 188

Suggested Reading 188

References 189

10 Climate and Health 193
Jonathan Patz and Evan DiPrete Brown

What Is Climate Change? 194

Public Health Risks of Climate Change 196

Public Health Responses to Climate Change 204

Chapter Summary 208

Key Terms 208

Review Questions 209

References 209

11 Information Communication Technology and Health 217
Laura E. Jacobson and Alain B. Labrique

The Landscape 218

Considerations 228

Conclusion 230

Chapter Summary 230

Key Terms 231

Review Questions 231

References 231

12 Scaling Up in Global Health 233
Richard Cash and Sophie Broach

What Is Scale-Up? 234

The Story of BRAC: Experiences in Successfully Scaling Up Public Health

Programs 236

Engaging in Global Health Practice with Scale in Mind 241

Chapter Summary 244

Key Terms 244

Review Questions 244

References 245

Part II Global Health Practice

13 Global Health Experiences 249
Katarina M. Grande and Lori DiPrete Brown

Global Health Experiences: A Focus on Learning 250

Types of Global Health Experiences 251

Applying for and Funding Global Health Experiences 257

Chapter Summary 259

Activity: Develop a Country Profile 259

Key Terms 268

Suggested Reading and Resources 268

References 269

14 Global Health Competencies for the Health Sciences 271
Gabrielle A. Jacquet, Jessica Evert, and Kevin Wyne

Background 272

Levels of Experience and Training 273

Timing of Experience 274

Scope of Practice 275

Additional Competencies 275

Chapter Summary 277

Case Study for Group Discussion 278

Key Terms 279

Suggested Resources 279

References 280

15 Working with Communities 281
Lori DiPrete Brown and Sophia Friedson-Ridenour

Community-Based Participatory Research: Core Concepts 282

Insights for CBPR Practice: A Case Study from Ecuador 286

CBPR Methods and Global Health: A Mixed-Methods Approach 293

Chapter Summary 297

Review Questions 297

Key Terms 298

References 298

16 Transformative Engagement and Leadership for Global Health 299
C. Perry Dougherty

A Framework for Transformative Leadership 301

Three Lenses of Reflection and Discernment 302

Historical and Cultural Context of Your Leadership 302

Centrality of Relationship 303

Skills of Transformative Engagement and Leadership 304

Practicing Transformative Engagement and Leadership: A Three-Part

Exercise 308

Chapter Summary 311

Key Terms 312

Review Questions 312

Suggested Reading 312

References 313

17 Guidelines for Planning a Global Health Learning Experience 315
Sweta Shrestha

Elements of a Global Health Field Course 316

Case Example: Nepal Global Field Course 322

Chapter Summary 329

Key Terms 329

Suggested Reading 329

18 Navigating Global Health for Student Organizations 331
Alexis Barnes and Alyssa Smaldino

Students as Global Health Partners 332

Student Organizations and Harnessing the Power of Partnership 334

Structures of Accountability 338

Chapter Summary 340

Review Questions 340

Key Terms 340

Recommended Reading 341

References 341

19 Planning for Health and Safety 343
Katarina M. Grande

Before You Go 343

While You Are There 346

Chapter Summary 349

Key Terms 349

Discussion and Practice Assignment 349

Suggested Reading 349

References 350

20 Global Health Professional Skills and Careers 351
Sharon Rudy and Angelina Gordon

What Are the Various Careers in Global Health? 352

What Does Success Look Like? 353

What Are Employers Looking For? 355

How to Build Your Skills for the Road Ahead 357

Chapter Summary 363

Discussion Questions 364

Activity: Skills Inventory 364

Key Terms 367

Suggested Reading 368

References 368

Part III Global Health Perspectives

21 So You Want to Save the World? First, You’ve Got to Know It 371
Brian W. Simpson

References 374

22 Since You Asked 375
Lori DiPrete Brown

Honduras 375

Nicaragua 377

Guatemala 378

Your First Global Health Experience 379

23 Leadership Lessons from the Last Mile 381
Carrie Hessler-Radelet

Walking “the Last Mile” with Daisy Duarte in Mozambique 381

Leadership Lessons 383

Recommended Reading 384

24 How Global Health Identity Politics Harms Local Communities 387
James Kassaga Arinaitwe

Ebola Orphans in Africa Do Not Need Saviors 388

What It Means to Be an Orphan 388

Rethinking How to Provide Aid 389

Community versus Institution 390

Implications for the Future 390

References 391

25 Gender and Community Well-Being 393
Araceli Alonso and Teresa Langle de Paz

Come on a Journey to Lunga Lunga 394

The Situation upon Arrival 394

Women as Agents 395

What Can Be Done? 397

What Happened: The Surface and the Layers 398

A Model to Replicate: Health by All Means 401

Key Terms 403

Recommended Reading 403

References 403

26 Strengthening Immunization Programs 405
James Conway

Herd Immunity and Immunization Goals 406

Decision Making and Vaccine Hesitancy 406

Vaccine Access 408

Vaccine Development 409

Suggested Reading 410

References 411

27 HIV: US to Global Perspectives 413
Katarina M. Grande

HIV Background 414

Strategies for Ending HIV 414

Working in HIV Globally and Locally 415

Suggested Reading 416

References 417

28 Tuberculosis and the Long and Winding Road toward a Global Health Career 419
Carolina Kwok

Recommended Reading 422

References 422

29 Linking Research to Applied Field Work 423
Devy Emperador

From Basic to Applied Research: The Public Health Laboratory Scientist 423

Public Health Laboratory in a Resource-Limited Setting 424

Conclusion 425

Recommended Reading 426

References 426

30 A Call to Surgeons to Advance Global Health 427
Girma Tefera

Addressing the Surgical Workforce Shortage 428

The Way Forward: Partnerships 430

Recommended Reading 431

References 431

31 Stories and Balance 433
James F. Cleary

Devastating Impacts 434

Balance 436

Recommended Reading 437

References 437

32 The Global Burden of Avoidable Childhood Blindness 439
Luxme Hariharan

Discussion Questions 443

Recommended Reading 443

References 443

33 Global Health Nursing 445
Linda C. Baumann and Karen D. Solheim

Global Perspective of Nursing 445

Contributions 446

Challenges 447

Resources 448

Insights 448

Reflective Questions 449

Suggested Reading 449

References 449

34 Contributions of Pharmacists in Global Public Health 451
Trisha Seys Ranola and Connie Kraus

Suggested Reading 455

References 456

35 Reflections and Stepping-Stones to a Career in Global Health 457
Cindy Haq

Family and Values 457

Medical School and Residency 458

Early International Experience 458

Negotiating Professional Responsibilities 459

Stepping-Stones 459

36 Global Health and Education 463
Nancy Kendall

Suggested Reading and Resources 467

References 468

37 The Importance of Narrative to Global Health Research and Practice 469
Louise Penner

References 473

38 The Urban Opportunity for Global Health 475
Jason Vargo

Recommended Reading 479

References 479

39 Building Effective Health Systems in Transitional Societies 481
Augustino Ting Mayai

Investments and Impacts in Health 481

Successful Practices: Health Extension Workers in Ethiopia 483

Successful Practices: Decentralization, Access, and Coordination in Rwanda 483

Ongoing Efforts in South Sudan 484

Lessons for South Sudan and Other Transitional Societies 485

References 486

40 Grand Challenges in Global Health and the Role of Universities 489
Keith Martin

Universities as Partners in Global Health 489

The Consortium of Universities for Global Health 490

A Triple Challenge 491

Addressing the Neglected Foundation of Development 492

Priorities for Action 493

Conclusion 495

References 495

Glossary 496

Index 505