# Fox and McDonald's Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, 9th Edition

# Fox and McDonald's Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, 9th Edition

ISBN: 978-1-118-91265-2

Mar 2015

672 pages

## Description

Fox & McDonald’s ** Introduction to Fluid Mechanics 9^{th} Edition **has been one of the most widely adopted textbooks in the field. This highly-regarded text continues to provide readers with a balanced and comprehensive approach to mastering critical concepts, incorporating a proven problem-solving methodology that helps readers develop an orderly plan to finding the right solution and relating results to expected physical behavior. The ninth edition features a wealth of example problems integrated throughout the text as well as a variety of new end of chapter problems.

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**CHAPTER 1 ****INTRODUCTION ****1**1.1 Introduction to Fluid Mechanics 2

1.2 Basic Equations 4

1.3 Methods of Analysis 5

1.4 Dimensions and Units 9

1.5 Analysis of Experimental Error 13

1.6 Summary 14

Problems 14

**CHAPTER 2**

**FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS**

**17**

2.1 Fluid as a Continuum 18

2.2 Velocity Field 19

2.3 Stress Field 25

2.4 Viscosity 27

2.5 Surface Tension 31

2.6 Description and Classification of Fluid Motions 34

2.7 Summary and Useful Equations 39

References 40

Problems 40

**CHAPTER 3**

**FLUID STATICS**

**47**

3.1 The Basic Equation of Fluid Statics 48

3.2 The Standard Atmosphere 51

3.3 Pressure Variation in a Static Fluid 52

3.4 Hydrostatic Force on Submerged Surfaces 59

3.5 Buoyancy and Stability 69

3.6 Fluids in Rigid-Body Motion (on the Web) 72

3.7 Summary and Useful Equations 72

References 73

Problems 73

**CHAPTER 4**

**BASIC EQUATIONS IN INTEGRAL FORM FOR A CONTROL VOLUME**

**82**

4.1 Basic Laws for a System 84

4.2 Relation of System Derivatives to the Control Volume Formulation 85

4.3 Conservation of Mass 89

4.4 Momentum Equation for Inertial Control Volume 94

4.5 Momentum Equation for Control Volume with Rectilinear Acceleration 111

4.6 Momentum Equation for Control Volume with Arbitrary Acceleration (on the Web) 117

4.7 The Angular-Momentum Principle 117

4.8 The First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics 121

4.9 Summary and Useful Equations 128

Problems 129

**CHAPTER 5**

**INTRODUCTION TO DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS OF FLUID MOTION**

**144**

5.1 Conservation of Mass 145

5.2 Stream Function for Two-Dimensional Incompressible Flow 151

5.3 Motion of a Fluid Particle (Kinematics) 153

5.4 Momentum Equation 167

5.5 Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics 176

5.6 Summary and Useful Equations 190

References 192

Problems 192

**CHAPTER 6**

**INCOMPRESSIBLE INVISCID FLOW**

**198**

6.1 Momentum Equation for Frictionless Flow: Euler’s Equation 199

6.2 Bernoulli Equation: Integration of Euler’s Equation Along a Streamline for Steady Flow 202

6.3 The Bernoulli Equation Interpreted as an Energy Equation 213

6.4 Energy Grade Line and Hydraulic Grade Line 217

6.5 Unsteady Bernoulli Equation: Integration of Euler’s Equation Along a Streamline (on the Web) 219

6.6 Irrotational Flow 219

6.7 Summary and Useful Equations 234

References 235

Problems 236

**CHAPTER 7**

**DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS AND SIMILITUDE**

**244**

7.1 Nondimensionalizing the Basic Differential Equations 245

7.2 Nature of Dimensional Analysis 246

7.3 Buckingham Pi Theorem 248

7.4 Significant Dimensionless Groups in Fluid Mechanics 254

7.5 Flow Similarity and Model Studies 256

7.6 Summary and Useful Equations 267

References 268

Problems 268

**CHAPTER 8**

**INTERNAL INCOMPRESSIBLE VISCOUS FLOW**

**275**

8.1 Internal Flow Characteristics 276

**PART A. FULLY DEVELOPED LAMINAR FLOW 277**

8.2 Fully Developed Laminar Flow Between Infinite Parallel Plates 277

8.3 Fully Developed Laminar Flow in a Pipe 288

**PART B. FLOW IN PIPES AND DUCTS**

**292**

8.4 Shear Stress Distribution in Fully Developed Pipe Flow 293

8.5 Turbulent Velocity Profiles in Fully Developed Pipe Flow 294

8.6 Energy Considerations in Pipe Flow 297

8.7 Calculation of Head Loss 299

8.8 Solution of Pipe Flow Problems 309

8.9 Restriction Flow Meters for Internal Flows 326

8.10 Summary and Useful Equations 337

References 340

Problems 341

**CHAPTER 9**

**EXTERNAL INCOMPRESSIBLE VISCOUS FLOW**

**353**

**PART A. BOUNDARY LAYERS**

**355**

9.1 The Boundary-Layer Concept 355

9.2 Laminar Flat-Plate Boundary Layer: Exact Solution (on the Web) 359

9.3 Momentum Integral Equation 359

9.4 Use of the Momentum Integral Equation for Flow with Zero Pressure Gradient 363

9.5 Pressure Gradients in Boundary-Layer Flow 371

**PART B. FLUID FLOW ABOUT IMMERSED BODIES**

**374**

9.6 Drag 374

9.7 Lift 386

9.8 Summary and Useful Equations 400

References 402

Problems 403

**CHAPTER 10**

**FLUID MACHINERY**

**412**

10.1 Introduction and Classification of Fluid Machines 413

10.2 Turbomachinery Analysis 417

10.3 Pumps, Fans, and Blowers 428

10.4 Positive Displacement Pumps 461

10.5 Hydraulic Turbines 464

10.6 Propellers and Wind-Power Machines 474

10.7 Compressible Flow Turbomachines 490

10.8 Summary and Useful Equations 495

References 497

Problems 499

**CHAPTER 11**

**FLOW IN OPEN CHANNELS**

**507**

11.1 Basic Concepts and Definitions 509

11.2 Energy Equation for Open-Channel Flows 516

11.3 Localized Effect of Area Change (Frictionless Flow) 524

11.4 The Hydraulic Jump 528

11.5 Steady Uniform Flow 534

11.6 Flow with Gradually Varying Depth 544

11.7 Discharge Measurement Using Weirs 548

11.8 Summary and Useful Equations 551

References 552

Problems 553

**CHAPTER 12**

**INTRODUCTION TO COMPRESSIBLE FLOW**

**556**

12.1 Review of Thermodynamics 557

12.2 Propagation of Sound Waves 563

12.3 Reference State: Local Isentropic Stagnation Properties 570

12.4 Critical Conditions 577

12.5 Basic Equations for One-Dimensional Compressible Flow 577

12.6 Isentropic Flow of an Ideal Gas: Area Variation 580

12.7 Normal Shocks 598

12.8 Supersonic Channel Flow with Shocks 605

12.8 Supersonic Channel Flow with Shocks (continued, on the Web) 607

12.9 Flow in a Constant-Area Duct with Friction (on the Web) 607

12.10 Frictionless Flow in a Constant-Area Duct with Heat Exchange (on the Web) 607

12.11 Oblique Shocks and Expansion Waves (on the Web) 607

12.12 Summary and Useful Equations 607

References 610

Problems 610

**APPENDIX A**

**FLUID PROPERTY DATA**

**A-1**

**APPENDIX B**

**VIDEOS FOR FLUID MECHANICS**

**B-1**

**APPENDIX C**

**SELECTED PERFORMANCE CURVES FOR PUMPS AND FANS**

**C-1**

**APPENDIX D**

**FLOW FUNCTIONS FOR COMPUTATION OF COMPRESSIBLE**

**FLOW**

**D-1**

**APPENDIX E**

**ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTAL UNCERTAINTY**

**E-1**

**APPENDIX F**

**ADDITIONAL COMPRESSIBLE FLOW FUNCTIONS (ONLINE)**

**WF-1**

**APPENDIX G**

**A BRIEF REVIEW OF MICROSOFT EXCEL (ONLINE)**

**WG-1**

**Answers to Selected Problems**

**615**

**Index**

**623**

- Real-World Case Studies: A new case study begins each chapter, providing students with motivation and demonstrating how fluid mechanics concepts are applied to solve real-world problems.
- Restructured and Updated Chapters: Including chapters related to Internal Incompressible Viscous Flow, Flow Measurement, Compressible Flow
- Chapters 12 and 13 of the previous edition have been combined into one comprehensive chapter on Compressible Fluids

- This text is well regarded as an undergraduate textbook for its comprehensive treatment of all the main areas of fluid mechanics, as well as its level of presentation.
- Provides a proven, consistent problem-solving methodology: A consistent problem methodology is demonstrated in every example, demonstrating best practices for students.
- Includes over 100 detailed example problems illustrate important fluid mechanics concepts and incorporate problem-solving techniques that allow students to see the advantages of using a systematic procedure.
- More than 1,700 end-of-chapter problems with varying degrees of difficulty give instructors many options when creating assignments.
- Integration with Excel®: The problem-solving approach is integrated with Excel so instructors can focus more class time on fundamental concepts. 51 Example Excel® workbooks are available to present a variety of fluid mechanics phenomena, especially the effects produced when varying input parameters.
*CFD:*The section on basic concepts of computational fluid dynamics in Chapter 5 now includes material on using the spreadsheet for numerical analysis of simple 1D and 2D flows and includes an introduction to the Euler method.- Extensive explanations of theoretical derivations give instructors the choice to either review theory in class or assign it as homework so that lecture time can be more flexible.