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Fracking: Further Investigations into the Environmental Considerations and Operations of Hydraulic Fracturing, 2nd Edition

Fracking: Further Investigations into the Environmental Considerations and Operations of Hydraulic Fracturing, 2nd Edition

Michael D. Holloway

ISBN: 978-1-119-36342-2

Jul 2018

954 pages

Description

Since the first edition of Fracking was published, hydraulic fracturing has continued to be hotly debated.  Credited with bringing the US and other countries closer to “energy independence,” and blamed for tainted drinking water and earthquakes, hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”) continues to be one of the hottest topics and fiercely debated issues in the energy industry and in politics. 

Covering all of the latest advances in fracking since the first edition was published, this expanded and updated revision still contains all of the valuable original content for the engineer or layperson to understand the technology and its ramifications.  Useful not only as a tool for the practicing engineer solve day-to-day problems that come with working in hydraulic fracturing, it is also a wealth of information covering the possible downsides of what many consider to be a very valuable practice.  Many others consider it dangerous, and it is important to see both sides of the argument, from an apolitical, logical standpoint. 

While induced hydraulic fracturing utilizes many different engineering disciplines, this book explains these concepts in an easy to understand format.  The primary use of this book shall be to increase the awareness of a new and emerging technology and what the various ramifications can be.  The reader shall be exposed to many engineering concepts and terms.  All of these ideas and practices shall be explained within the body.  A science or engineering background is not required.

Preface xv

An Introduction to Hydraulic Fracturing xvii

1 Environmental Impact – Reality and Myth and Nero Did Not Fiddle While Rome Burned 1

1.1 The Tower of Babel and How it Could be the Cause of Much of the Fracking Debate 2

2 Production Development 5

3 Fractures: Their Orientation and Length 11

3.1 Fracture Orientation 11

3.2 Fracture Length/ Height 13

4 Casing and Cementing 15

4.1 Blowouts 16

4.2 Surface Blowouts 17

4.3 Subsurface Blowouts 17

4.4 Horizontal Drilling 18

4.5 Fracturing and the Groundwater Debate 18

5 Pre-Drill Assessments 19

5.1 Basis of Design 21

6 Well Construction 23

6.1 Drilling 23

6.2 Completion 26

7 Well Operations 29

7.1 Well Plug and Abandonment “P&A” 30

7.2 Considerations 30

8 Failure and Contamination Reduction 43

8.1 Conduct Environmental Sampling Before and During Operations 43

8.2 Disclose the Chemicals Being Used in Fracking Operations 44

8.3 Ensure that Wellbore Casings are Properly Designed and Constructed 44

8.4 Eliminate Venting and Work Toward Green Completions 44

8.5 Prevent Flowback Spillage/Leaks 45

8.6 Dispose/Recycle Flowback Properly 45

8.7 Minimize Noise and Dust 45

8.8 Protect Workers and Drivers 46

8.9 Communicate and Engage 46

8.10 Record and Document 47

9 Frack Fluids and Composition 49

9.1 Uses and Needs for Frack Fluids 50

9.2 Common Fracturing Additives 50

9.3 Typical Percentages of Commonly Used Additives 53

9.4 Proppants 53

9.5 Silica Sand 55

9.6 Resin Coated Proppant 57

9.7 Manufactured Ceramics Proppants 58

9.8 Additional Types 58

9.9 Slickwater 59

10 So Where Do the Frack Fluids Go? 61

11 Common Objections to Drilling Operations 63

11.1 Noise 64

11.2 Changes in Landscape and Beauty of Surroundings 65

11.3 Increased Traffic 66

11.4 Subsurface Contamination of Ground Water 67

11.5 Impacts on Water Wells 67

11.6 Water Analysis 67

11.7 Types of Methane and What They Show Us 70

11.8 Biogenic 71

11.9 Thermogenic 71

11.10 Possible Causes of Methane in Water Wells 71

11.11 Surface Water and Soil Impacts 72

11.12 Spill Preparation and Documentation 72

11.13 Other Surface Impacts 73

11.14 Land Use Permitting 73

11.15 Water Usage and Management 74

11.16 Flowback Water 74

11.17 Produced Water 75

11.18 Flowback and Produced Water Management 76

11.19 Geological Shifts 76

11.20 Induced Seismic Event 77

11.21 Wastewater Disposal Wells 78

11.22 Site Remediation 78

11.23 Regulatory Oversight 78

11.24 Federal Level Oversight 79

11.25 State Level Oversight 79

11.26 Municipal Level Oversight 80

11.27 Examples of Legislation and Regulations 80

11.28 Frack Fluid Makeup Reporting 81

11.29 FracFocus 82

11.30 Atmospheric Emissions 83

12 Air Emissions Controls 85

12.1 Common Sources of Air Emissions 87

12.2 Fugitive Air Emissions 88

12.3 Silica Dust Exposure 89

12.4 Stationary Sources 89

12.5 The Clean Air Act 90

12.6 Regulated Pollutants 90

12.7 NAAQS Criteria Pollutants 91

12.8 Attainment Versus Non-attainment 91

12.9 Types of Federal Regulations 92

12.10 MACT/NESHAP HAPs 92

12.11 NSPS Regulations: 40 CFR Part 60 92

12.12 NSPS Subpart OOOO 93

12.13 Facilities/Activities Affected by NSPS OOOO 93

12.14 Other Types of Federal NSPS and NESHAP/MACT Regulations 95

12.15 NSPS Subpart IIII 95

12.16 NSPS Subpart JJJJ 95

12.17 NSPS Subpart KKK 95

12.18 MACT Subpart HH and Subpart HHH 95

12.19 MACT Subpart ZZZZ 96

12.20 Construction and Operating New Source Review Permits 96

12.21 Title V Permits 96

13 Chemicals and Products on Locations 99

13.1 Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) 102

13.2 Contents of an MSDS 103

13.3 Product Identification 104

13.4 Hazardous Ingredients of Mixtures 104

13.5 Physical Data 105

13.6 Fire and Explosion Hazard Data 106

13.7 Health Hazard Data 106

13.8 Emergency and First Aid Procedures 107

13.9 Reactivity Data 107

13.10 Spill, Leak, and Disposal Procedures 107

13.11 Personal Protection Information 108

13.12 HCS 2012 Safety Data Sheets (SDS) 117

14 Public Perception, the Media, and the Facts 123

14.1 Regulation or Policy Topics: Media Coverage and Public Perception 128

15 Notes from the Field 137

15.1 Going Forward 150

16 Migration of Hydrocarbon Gases 153

16.1 Introduction 153

16.2 Geochemical Exploration for Petroleum 154

16.3 Primary and Secondary Migration of Hydrocarbons 157

16.3.1 Primary Gas Migration 157

16.3.2 Secondary Gas Migration 159

16.3.3 Gas Entrapment 159

16.4 Origin of Migrating Hydrocarbon Gases 161

16.4.1 Biogenic vs. Thermogenic Gas 161

16.4.1.1 Sources of Migrating Gases 161

16.4.1.2 Biogenic Methane 162

16.4.1.3 Thermogenic Methane Gas 165

16.4.2 Isotopic Values of Gases 167

16.4.3 Nonhydrocarbon Gases 168

16.4.4 Mixing of Gases 170

16.4.5 Surface Gas Sampling 172

16.4.6 Summary 172

16.5 Driving Force of Gas Movement 174

16.5.1 Density of a Hydrocarbon Gas under Pressure 174

16.5.2 Sample Problem (Courtesy of Gulf Publishing Company) 176

16.5.3 Other Methods of Computing Natural Gas Compressibility 177

16.5.4 Density of Water 181

16.5.5 Petrophysical Parameters Affecting Gas Migration 183

16.5.6 Porosity, Void Ratio, and Density 184

16.5.7 Permeability 188

16.5.8 Free and Dissolved Gas in Fluid 189

16.5.9 Quantity of Dissolved Gas in Water 191

16.6 Types of Gas Migration 192

16.6.1 Molecular Diffusion Mechanism 193

16.6.2 Discontinuous-Phase Migration of Gas 195

16.6.3 Minimum Height of Gas Column Necessary to Initiate Upward Gas Movement 198

16.6.4 Buoyant Flow 199

16.6.5 Sample Problem (Courtesy of Gulf Publishing Company) 200

16.6.6 Gas Columns 201

16.6.7 Sample Problem 2.2 (Courtesy of Gulf Publishing Company) 203

16.6.8 Continuous-Phase Gas Migration 204

16.7 Paths of Gas Migration Associated with Oilwells 207

16.7.1 Natural Paths of Gas Migration 209

16.7.2 Man-Made Paths of Gas Migration (boreholes) 211

16.7.3 Creation of Induced Fractures during Drilling 213

16.8 Wells Leaking Due to Cementing Failure 217

16.8.1 Breakdown of Cement 217

16.8.2 Cement Isolation Breakdown (Shrinkage—Circumferential Fractures) 217

16.8.3 Improper Placement of Cement 220

16.9 Environmental Hazards of Gas Migration 222

16.9.1 Explosive Nature of Gas 222

16.9.2 Toxicity of Hydrocarbon Gas 224

16.10 Migration of Gas from Petroleum Wellbores 227

16.10.1 Effect of Seismic Activity 228

16.11 Case Histories of Gas Migration Problems 228

16.11.1 Inglewood Oilfield, CA 230

16.11.2 Los Angeles City Oilfield, CA 231

16.11.2.1 Belmont High School Construction 233

16.11.3 Montebello Oilfield, CA 234

16.11.3.1 Montebello Underground Gas Storage 234

16.11.4 Playa Del Rey Oilfield, CA 235

16.11.4.1 Playa Del Rey underground Gas Storage 235

16.11.5 Salt Lake Oilfield, CA 238

16.11.5.1 Ross Dress for Less Department Store Explosion/Fire, Los Angeles, CA 238

16.11.5.2 Gilmore Bank 240

16.11.5.3 South Salt Lake Oilfield Gas Seeps from Gas Injection Project 241

16.11.5.4 Wilshire and Curson Gas Seep, Los Angeles, CA, 1999 241

16.11.6 Santa Fe Springs Oilfield, CA 241

16.11.7 El Segundo Oilfield, CA 244

16.11.8 Honor Rancho and Tapia Oilfields, CA 244

16.11.9 Sylmar, CA — Tunnel Explosion 244

16.11.10 Hutchinson, KS — Explosion and Fires 247

16.11.11 Huntsman Gas Storage, NE 247

16.11.12 Mont Belvieu Gas Storage Field, TX 248

16.11.13 Leroy Gas Storage Facility, WY 248

16.12 Conclusions 249

References and Bibliography 252

17 Subsidence as a Result of Gas/Oil/Water Production 261

17.1 Introduction 261

17.2 Theoretical Compaction Models 264

17.3 Theoretical Modeling of Compaction 270

17.3.1 Terzaghi’s Compaction Model 272

17.3.2 Athy’s Compaction Model 274

17.3.3 Hedberg’s Compaction Model 275

17.3.4 Weller’s Compaction Model 275

17.3.5 Teodorovich and Chernov’s Compaction Model 276

17.3.6 Beall’s Compaction Model 277

17.3.7 Katz and Ibrahim Compaction Model 277

17.4 Subsidence Over Oilfields 279

17.4.1 Rate of Subsidence 281

17.4.2 Effect of Earthquakes on Subsidence 282

17.4.3 Stress and Strain Distribution in Subsiding Areas 283

17.4.4 Calculation of Subsidence in Oilfields 286

17.4.5 Permeability Seals for Confined Aquifers 289

17.4.6 Fissures Caused by Subsidence 290

17.5 Case Studies of Subsidence over Hydrocarbon Reservoirs 292

17.5.1 Los Angeles Basin, CA, Oilfields, Inglewood Oilfield, CA 292

17.5.1.1 Baldwin Hills Dam Failure 294

17.5.1.2 Proposed Housing Development 297

17.5.2 Los Angeles City Oilfield, CA 297

17.5.2.1 Belmont High School Construction 297

17.5.3 Playa Del Rey Oilfield, CA 299

17.5.3.1 Playa Del Rey Marina Subsidence 299

17.5.4 Torrance Oilfield, CA 301

17.5.5 Redondo Beach Marina Area, CA 302

17.5.6 Salt Lake Oilfield, CA 303

17.5.7 Santa Fe Springs Oilfield, CA 305

17.5.8 Wilmington Oilfield, Long Beach, CA 306

17.5.9 North Stavropol Oilfield, Russia 318

17.5.10 Subsidence over Venezuelan Oilfields 324

17.5.10.1 Subsidence in the Bolivar Coastal Oilfields of Venezuela 325

17.5.10.2 Subsidence of Facilities 328

17.5.11 Po-Veneto Plain, Italy 335

17.5.11.1 Po Delta 336

17.5.12 Subsidence Over the North Sea Ekofisk Oilfield 343

17.5.12.1 Production 345

17.5.12.2 Ekofisk Field Description 346

17.5.12.3 Enhanced Oil Recovery Projects 348

17.5.13 Platform Sinking 348

17.6 Concluding Remarks 350

References and Bibliography 351

18 Effect of Emission of CO2 and CH4 into the Atmosphere 361

18.1 Introduction 361

18.2 Historic Geologic Evidence 363

18.2.1 Historic Record of Earth’s Global Temperature 363

18.2.2 Effect of Atmospheric Carbon Content on Global Temperature 366

18.2.3 Sources of CO2 370

18.3 Adiabatic Theory 373

18.3.1 Modeling the Planet Earth 373

18.3.2 Modeling the Planet Venus 375

18.3.3 Anthropogenic Carbon Effect on the Earth’s Global Temperature 380

18.3.4 Methane Gas Emissions 383

18.3.5 Monitoring of Methane Gas Emissions 385

References 385

19 Fracking in the USA 389

Appendix A: Chemicals Used in Fracking 729

Appendix B: State Agency Web Addresses 907

Bibliography: 911

Index 913