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Frequency Stability: Introduction and Applications

Frequency Stability: Introduction and Applications

Venceslav F. Kroupa

ISBN: 978-1-118-31014-4

Sep 2012

328 pages

Description

An in-depth look at the theory and applications of frequency stability

An understanding of the acquisition of stable frequency is essential for anyone who needs to solve noise problems in wireless communications. This book offers a thorough introduction to the principles and applications of frequency stability, arming practicing engineers with the tools they need to minimize noise in systems and devices that affect everyday communications for millions of people.

With an emphasis on both practical and scientific points of view, Frequency Stability: Introduction and Applications examines frequency and time fluctuations in resonators, as well as the stability of both standard and practical microwave oscillators. It explains noise properties of building circuit blocks, introducing time domain properties and how they relate to noise spectral densities. Including a special chapter devoted to the design and properties of phase locked loops—a crucial topic for frequency synthesizers—the book also:

  • Examines in detail L/F noise, showing how power losses in the propagation material extend over a long period of time
  • Covers sapphire, optoelectronics, MW, and ring oscillators with the discussion of noise in delay-line oscillators with lasers
  • Offers an extended treatment of phase noise in semiconductors and amplifiers based on Van der Ziel investigations
  • Emphasizes the modified Allan variance in the time domain, including exact computations
  • Outlines the relationship between resonator frequency and output phase noises via the feedback theory

Featuring numerous tables with actual data, Frequency Stability: Introduction and Applications is an invaluable guide for engineers wishing to rein in acoustic and electromagnetic interference in modern communications.

Preface xv

Symbols xxi

1. Noise and Frequency Stability 1

1.1 White Noise 2

1.2 Colored Noises 7

1.3 Small and Band Limited Perturbations of Sinusoidal Signals 14

1.4 Statistical Approach 17

1.5 Power Spectra of Stochastic Processes 29

2. Noise in Resonators and Oscillators 37

2.1 Noise Generated in Resonators 37

2.2 Phase Noise of Resonators: Experimental Results 44

2.3 Noise in Oscillators 50

2.4 Leeson Model 60

3. Noise Properties of Practical Oscillators 65

3.1 Precision Oscillators 65

3.2 Practical Oscillators 102

3.3 Practical RC Oscillators 111

4. Noise of Building Elements 123

4.1 Resistors 123

4.2 Inductances 124

4.3 Capacitance 126

4.4 Semiconductors 129

4.5 Amplifiers 137

4.6 Mixers 143

4.7 Frequency Dividers 161

4.8 Frequency Multiphers 178

5. Time Domain Measurements 183

5.1 Basic Properties of Sample Variances 184

5.2 Transfer Functions of Several Time Domain 186

5.3 Time Jitter 205

6. Phase-Locked Loops 231

6.1 PLL Basic 231

6.2 PLL Design 237

6.3 Stability of the PLL 243

6.4 Tracking 253

6.5 Working Ranges of PLL 258

6.6 Digital PLL 267

6.7 PLL Phase Noise 275

6.8 PLL Time Jitter 283

6.9 Spurious Signals 284

6.10 Synchronized Oscillators 288

Index 299