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From Physics to Daily Life: Applications in Informatics, Energy, and Environment

From Physics to Daily Life: Applications in Informatics, Energy, and Environment

Beatrice Bressan (Editor)

ISBN: 978-3-527-68702-2

Aug 2014, Wiley-Blackwell

364 pages

$82.99

Description

Beatrice Bressan brings together a number of outstanding examples of successful cross-disciplinary technology transfer originating in fundamental physics research, which dramatically impacted scientific progress in areas which changed modern society. Many of them were developed at CERN, a hotbed of fundamental inventions in particle physics. This book deals with breakthrough developments being applied in the world of IT, consumer electronics, aviation, and material sciences.

Additional sections of the book deal with knowledge management and technology transfer including their economic aspects. While each chapter has been drafted by an expert in the field, the editor has carefully edited the whole to ensure a coherent overall structure.

A must-have for policy makers, technology companies, investors, strategic planners in research and technology, as well as attractive reading for the research community.

Contributors' CVs XIII

Foreword XXI

List of Acronyms XXIII

List of Units XXXI

1 Introduction 1
Sergio Bertolucci

Part I Knowledge Management and Technology Transfer in an Organization 3

2 Knowledge Management: From Theory to Practice 5
Beatrice Bressan and Daan Boom

2.1 Knowledge-Based and Innovative Organization 5

2.2 The Theory of Knowledge 7

2.2.1 Tacit and Explicit Knowledge 8

2.2.2 The SECI Model and the Knowledge Creation Spiral 9

2.2.3 The Two Dimensions and the Two Spirals of Knowledge Creation 11

2.2.4 The Five Conditions and the Five Phases in Two Dimensions 13

2.3 The Core Processes of Managing Knowledge 18

2.3.1 Knowledge Outputs and Outcomes 19

2.4 The Knowledge Worker 31

2.4.1 The Individual Learning Process 33

2.4.2 Scientific, Technological and Social Processes 36

2.4.3 Concept Formation and the Hierarchical Levels of Conceptualization 37

2.5 The Knowledge Creation, Acquisition, and Transfer Model 39

2.6 Knowledge Management: A Case Study of CERN 41

2.6.1 The LHC Case Study Survey 47

Part II Examples of Knowledge and Technology Transfer 57

Section 1 Linking Information 59

3 WWW and More 61
Robert Cailliau

3.1 The First Page 62

3.2 Influences on the History of the Web 64

3.2.1 A Matter of Age 64

3.2.2 The Approach 64

3.3 CERN’s Role 65

3.3.1 A Possible Definition 65

3.3.2 Making it Work 66

3.3.3 On Documents 66

3.3.4 The Director General 66

3.3.5 Al Gore, the LHC, and the Rest is History 67

3.4 What-if Musings 68

3.4.1 Money, Money, Money . . . 68

3.4.2 And if Not? 69

3.5 The Dark Sides of the Force 70

3.5.1 Techies 70

3.5.2 Global Heating 72

3.5.3 Sin by Omission 72

3.6 Good Stuff 73

3.6.1 Public Domain 73

3.6.2 The Conferences 74

3.6.3 The Consortium 75

3.7 On the Nature of Computing 76

3.7.1 Copy 76

3.7.2 See 77

3.7.3 Understand 77

3.7.4 Remember 77

3.7.5 Interact 78

3.7.6 Share 78

3.7.7 Think 78

3.8 Science ‘Un-human’ 79

3.9 Lessons to be Learned 80

3.10 Conclusions 80

4 Grid and Cloud 81
Bob Jones

4.1 Why a Grid? 82

4.2 A Production Infrastructure 85

4.3 Transferring Technology: Grids in Other Science Domains 86

4.4 How CERN Openlab has Contributed to the WLCG Grid 86

4.5 Four Basic Principles 87

4.6 Three-Year Phases 88

4.7 EGEE to EGI Transition 90

4.8 Lessons Learned and Anticipated Evolution 91

4.9 Transferring Technology: Grids in Business 92

4.10 Sharing Resources Through Grids 94

4.11 What are the Hurdles? 94

4.12 Philips Research: Scientific Simulation, Modelling and Data Mining Supports Healthcare 95

4.13 Finance: Stock Analysis Application 95

4.14 Multimedia: GridVideo 96

4.15 Imense: From Laboratory to Market 97

4.16 Total, UK 97

4.17 Seismic Imaging and Reservoir Simulation: CGG Veritas Reaping Benefits from the Grid 98

4.18 Societal Impact 99

5 The ‘Touch Screen’ Revolution 103
Bent Stumpe

5.1 The Birth of a Touch Screen 103

5.2 The Novelty for the Control Room of the CERN SPS Accelerator 106

5.3 A Touch Screen as Replacement for Mechanical Buttons 110

5.4 Attempts at Early Knowledge Transfer 111

5.5 Evolution Turned Into Revolution 113

5.6 Touch Screen and Human Behaviour 115

Section 2 Developing Future 117

6 Solar Thermal Electricity Plants 119
Cayetano Lopez

6.1 The Four STE Technologies 120

6.2 Optical Issues in the STE Plant 124

6.2.1 Solar Concentrators 124

6.2.2 Selective and Anti-Reflective Coatings 124

6.2.3 Thermography 128

6.3 Thermodynamic Issues in the STE Plant 131

6.4 Issues in STE Plants Related to Heat Transfer 134

6.5 Thermal Storage of Energy 137

6.6 Fluid Mechanics 138

7 Computers and Aviation 141
Antony Jameson

7.1 Computing in Structural and Aerodynamic Analysis 145

7.2 Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing 149

7.3 Fly-By-Wire and Other On-Board Systems 151

7.4 Airborne Software 154

7.5 Ground-Based Computer Systems 155

7.6 Conclusions 156

8 Antimatter Pushing Boundaries 159
Niels Madsen

8.1 Science and the Unknown 159

8.2 Antimatter and CERN 162

8.2.1 Antimatter at the LHC 164

8.2.2 The CERN Antimatter Facility 164

8.3 The Anti-World in Everyday Life 167

8.4 Beyond the Present Day 169

Section 3 Sustainability and Learning 171

9 Towards a Globally Focussed Earth Simulation Centre 173
Robert Bishop

9.1 A String of Disasters 174

9.2 Now is the Time 176

9.3 A Global Synthesis of Knowledge 176

9.4 Modelling and Simulation as a Platform for Collaboration 177

9.5 Advances in High-Performance Computing 178

9.6 Creating Value from Massive Data Pools 179

9.7 Interactive and Immersive 4D Visualizations 180

9.8 Leveraging the Many Layers of Computing 182

9.9 Getting a Complete Picture of the Whole Earth 183

9.10 Influence of the Solar System 184

9.11 Prediction and Uncertainty of Extreme Events 186

9.12 Impact on Cities and Bioregions 189

9.13 Towards Urban Resilience 190

9.14 Modelling the Whole-Earth System: A Challenge Whose Time has Come! 191

10 Radiation Detection in Environment and Classrooms 195
Michael Campbell

10.1 The Origins of the Hybrid Pixel Detector 196

10.2 Hybrid Pixel Detectors for High-Energy Physics 197

10.3 Hybrid Pixel Detectors for Imaging: The Medipix Chips 199

10.4 Applications 205

10.4.1 Medical X-Ray Imaging 205

10.4.2 Biology 206

10.4.3 X-Ray Materials Analysis 207

10.4.4 Gas Detector Readout 208

10.4.5 Radiation Monitoring 209

10.4.6 Chemistry 210

10.4.7 Dosimetry in Space 210

10.4.8 Education 211

10.4.9 Art Meets Science 212

10.5 Back to High-Energy Physics 213

10.6 Collaboration, Organization and Serendipity 214

11 Theory for Development 215
Fernando Quevedo

11.1 The Importance of Theoretical Research Through History 216

11.2 Knowledge Management and Science for Peace 219

Part III Economic Aspects of Knowledge Management and Technology Transfer 227

12 Innovation and Big Data 229
Edwin Morley-Fletcher

12.1 The Wealth of Nations: Agriculture, the Division of Labour, or Profits? 230

12.2 Industrialization and/or Exploitation 231

12.3 Perfect Competition, the Disappearance of Profits, Economies of Scale 232

12.4 Creative Destruction 233

12.5 Risk and Uncertainty 235

12.6 Accumulation Without Innovation 236

12.7 The Real Engine of Economic Growth 237

12.8 Endogenous Technological Change 238

12.9 The Appropriate Set of Market and Non-Market Institutions 239

12.10 Limitless Knowledge 241

12.11 Post-Scarcity and Networks 242

12.12 Intellectual Property Rights 244

12.13 Governments’ Support of Scientific Research 245

12.14 The Remaining Scarce Resource is Human Creativity 246

12.15 Different Organizational Modes for Overcoming Uncertainty 247

12.16 Information and Allocation Gains of Peer Production 248

12.17 An Ecosystem of Technologies Leading to the Singularity? 250

12.18 Big Data Analytics and Data-Intensive Healthcare 251

13 Universities and Corporations: The Case of Switzerland 255
Spyros Arvanitis and Martin Woerter

13.1 Background 255

13.2 KTT Activities in the Swiss Economy: The Main Facts from the Firm’s Point of View 261

13.2.1 Forms and Partners of KTT Activities 262

13.2.2 Technological Fields of KTT-Active and R&D-Active Firms 267

13.2.3 Mediating Institutions and Motives for KTT Activities 268

13.2.4 Impact of KTT Activities as Assessed by the Firms 270

13.2.5 Obstacles to KTT Activities 272

13.3 KTT Activities in the Swiss Economy: The Main Facts from the Science Institution Point of View 276

13.3.1 Incidence and Forms of KTT Activities 276

13.3.2 Mediating Institutions and Obstacles of KTT Activities 276

13.4 Analytical Part: Exploration of KTT Activities in Switzerland 278

13.4.1 Drivers of KTT Activities from the Point of View of the Firm 279

13.4.2 KTT Activities Determinants from the University Point of View 284

13.4.3 Impact of KTT Activities on Innovation and Labour Productivity 288

13.4.4 KTT Strategies Determinants and their Impact on Innovation Performance 291

13.4.5 Exploration and Exploitation 294

13.4.6 Technological Proximity Between Firms and Universities and TT 299

13.5 Conclusion 302

14 Conclusion 307
Marilena Streit-Bianchi

Author Index 311

Index 317