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Fuel Cell Science and Engineering: Materials, Processes, Systems and Technology, 2 Volume Set

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Fuel Cell Science and Engineering: Materials, Processes, Systems and Technology, 2 Volume Set

Detlef Stolten (Editor), Bernd Emonts (Editor)

ISBN: 978-3-527-65026-2 October 2012 1268 Pages

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Description

Fuel cells are expected to play a major role in the future power supply that will transform to renewable, decentralized and fluctuating primary energies. At the same time the share of electric power will continually increase at the expense of thermal and mechanical energy not just in transportation, but also in households. Hydrogen as a perfect fuel for fuel cells and an outstanding and efficient means of bulk storage for renewable energy will spearhead this development together with fuel cells. Moreover, small fuel cells hold great potential for portable devices such as gadgets and medical applications such as pacemakers.

This handbook will explore specific fuel cells within and beyond the mainstream development and focuses on materials and production processes for both SOFC and lowtemperature fuel cells, analytics and diagnostics for fuel cells, modeling and simulation as well as balance of plant design and components. As fuel cells are getting increasingly sophisticated and industrially developed the issues of quality assurance and methodology of development are included in this handbook. The contributions to this book come from an international panel of experts from academia, industry, institutions and government.

This handbook is oriented toward people looking for detailed information on specific fuel cell types, their materials, production processes,
modeling and analytics. Overview information on the contrary on mainstream fuel cells and applications are provided in the book
'Hydrogen and Fuel Cells', published in 2010.
Volume 1

PART I: Technology

TECHNICAL ADVANCEMENT OF FUEL-CELL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
Introduction
Representative Research Findings for SOFCs
Representative Research Findings for HT-PEFCs
Representative Research Findings for DMFCs
Application and Demonstration in Transportation
Fuel Cells for Stationary Applications
Special Markets for Fuel Cells
Marketable Development Results
Conclusion

SINGLE-CHAMBER FUEL CELLS
Introduction
SC-SOFCs
SC-SOFC Systems
Applications of SC-SOFCs Systems
Conclusion

TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS OF MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS
Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells overview
Analysis of MCFC Technology
Conventional and Innovative Applications
Conclusion

ALKALINE FUEL CELLS
Historical Introduction and Principle
Concepts of Alkaline Fuel-Cell Design Concepts
Electrolytes and Separators
Degradation

Carbon Dioxide Behavior
Conclusion

MICRO FUEL CELLS
Introduction
Physical Principles of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs)
Types of Micro Fuel Cells
Materials and Manufacturing
GDL Optimization
Conclusion

PRINCIPLES AND TECHNOLOGY OF MICROBIAL FUEL CELLS
Introduction
Materials and Methods
Microbial Catalysts
Applications and Proof of Concepts
Modeling
Outlook and Conclusions

MICRO-REACTORS FOR FUEL PROCESSING
Introduction
Heat and Mass Transfer in Micro-Reactors
Specific Features Required from Catalyst Formulations for Microchannel Plate Heat-Exchanger Reactors
Heat Management of Microchannel Plate Heat-Exchanger Reactors
Examples of Complete Microchannel Fuel Processors
Fabrication of Microchannel Plate Heat-Exchanger Reactors

REGENERATIVE FUEL CELLS
Introduction
Principles
History
Thermodynamics
Electrodes
Solid Oxide Electrolyte (SOE)
System Design and Components
Applications and Systems
Conclusion and Prospects

PART II: Materials and Production Processes

ADVANCES IN SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL DEVELOPMENT BETWEEN 1995 AND 2010 AT FORSCHUNGSZENTRUM J¨ULICH GMBH, GERMANY
Introduction
Advances in Research, Development, and Testing of Single Cells
Conclusions

SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ELECTRODE FABRICATION BY INFILTRATION
Introduction
SOFC and Electrochemical Fundamentals
Current Status of Electrodes;
Fabrication Methods of Electrodes
Electrode Materials
Infiltration
Conclusion

SEALING TECHNOLOGY FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS
Introduction

Sealing Techniques
Conclusion

PHOSPHORIC ACID, AN ELECTROLYTE FOR FUEL CELLS -
TEMPERATURE AND COMPOSITION DEPENDENCE OF VAPOR PRESSURE AND PROTON CONDUCTIVITY
Introduction
Short Overview of Basic Properties and Formal Considerations
Vapor Pressure of Water as a Function of Composition and Temperature
Proton Conductivity as a Function of Composition and Temperature
Equilibria between the Polyphosphoric Acid Species and "Composition" of Concentrated Phosphoric Acid
Conclusion

MATERIALS AND COATINGS FOR METALLIC BIPOLAR PLATES IN POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS
Introduction
Metallic Bipolar Plates
Discussion and Perspective

NANOSTRUCTURED MATERIALS FOR FUEL CELLS
Introduction
The Fuel Cell and Its System
Triple Phase Boundary
Electrodes to Oxidize Hydrogen
Membranes to Transport Ions
Electrocatalysts to Reduce Oxygen
Catalyst Supports to Conduct Electrons
Future Directions2

CATALYSIS IN LOW-TEMPERATURE FUEL CELLS -
AN OVERVIEW
Introduction
Electrocatalysis in Fuel Cells
Electrocatalyst Degradation
Novel Support Materials
Catalyst Development, Characterization, and In Situ Studies in Fuel Cells
Catalysis in Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells
Perspective

PART III: Analytics and Diagnostics

IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE FUEL CELLS
Introduction
Fundamentals
Experimental Examples
Conclusion

POST-TEST CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL-CELL STACKS
Introduction
Stack Dissection
Conclusion and Outlook

IN SITU IMAGING AT LARGE-SCALE FACILITIES
Introduction
X-Rays and Neutrons
Application of In Situ 2D Methods
Application of 3D Methods
Conclusion

ANALYTICS OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LOW-TEMPERATURE FUEL CELLS
Introduction
Gravimetric Properties
Caloric Properties
Structural Information: Porosity
Mechanical Properties
Conclusion

DEGRADATION CAUSED BY DYNAMIC OPERATION AND STARVATION CONDITIONS
Introduction
Measurement Techniques
Dynamic Operation at Standard Conditions
Starvation Conditions
Mitigation
Conclusion

PART IV: Quality Assurance

QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR CHARACTERIZING LOW-TEMPERATURE FUEL CELLS
Introduction
Test Procedures/Standardized Measurements
Standardized Test Cells
Degradation and Lifetime Investigations
Design of Experiments in the Field of Fuel-Cell Research

METHODOLOGIES FOR FUEL CELL PROCESS ENGINEERING
Introduction
Verification Methods in Fuel-Cell Process Engineering
Analysis Methods in Fuel-Cell Process Engineering
Conclusion


Volume 2

PART V: Modeling and Simulation

23 MESSAGES FROM ANALYTICAL MODELING OF FUEL CELLS
Introduction
Modeling of Catalyst Layer Performance
Polarization Curve of PEMFCs and HT-PEMFCs
Conclusion

STOCHASTIC MODELING OF FUEL-CELL COMPONENTS
Multi-Layer Model for Paper-Type GDLs
Time-Series Model for Non-Woven GDLs
Stochastic Network Model for the Pore Phase
Further Results
Structural Characterization of Porous GDL
Conclusion

COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMIC SIMULATION USING SUPERCOMPUTER CALCULATION CAPACITY
Introduction
High-Performance Computing for Fuel Cells
HPC-Based CFD Modeling for Fuel-Cell Systems
CFD-Based Design
Conclusion and Outlook

MODELING SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS FROM THE MACROSCALE TO THE NANOSCALE
Introduction
Governing Equations of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
Macroscale SOFC Modeling
Mesoscale SOFC Modeling
Nanoscale SOFC Modeling
Conclusion

NUMERICAL MODELING OF THE THERMOMECHANICALLY INDUCED STRESS IN SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS
Introduction
Chronological Overview of Numerically Performed Thermomechanical Analyses in SOFCs
Mathematical Formulation of Strain and Stress Within SOFC Components
Effect of Geometric Design on the Stress Distribution in SOFCs
Conclusion

MODELING OF MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS
Introduction
Spatially Distributed MCFC Model
Electrode Models
Conclusion

HIGH-TEMPERATURE POLYMER ELECTROLYTE FUEL-CELL MODELING
Introduction
Cell-Level Modeling
Stack-Level Modeling
Phosphoric Acid as Electrolyte
Basic Modeling of the Polarization Curve
Conclusion and Future Perspectives

MODELING OF POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FUEL-CELL COMPONENTS
Introduction
Polymer Electrolyte Membrane
Catalyst Layers
Gas Diffusion Layers and Microporous Layers
Gas Flow Channels
Gas Diffusion Layer-Gas Flow Channel Interface
Bipolar Plates
Coolant Flow
Model Validation
Conclusion

MODELING OF POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS AND STACKS
Introduction
Cell-Level Modeling and Simulation
Stack-Level Modeling and Simulation
Conclusion

PART VI: BALANCE OF PLANT DESIGN AND COMPONENTS

PRINCIPLES OF SYSTEMS ENGINEERING
Introduction
Basic Engineering
Detailed Engineering
Procurement
Construction
Conclusion

SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Power Generation
Overview of SOFC Power Systems
Subsystem Design for SOFC Power Systems
SOFC Power Systems

DESULFURIZATION FOR FUEL-CELL SYSTEMS
Introduction and Motivation
Sulfur-Containing Molecules in Crude Oil
Desulfurization in the Gas Phase
Desulfurization in the Liquid Phase
Application in Fuel-Cell Systems
Conclusion

DESIGN CRITERIA AND COMPONENTS FOR FUEL CELL POWERTRAINS
Introduction
Vehicle Requirements
Potentials and Challenges of Vehicle Powertrains
Components of Fuel Cell Powertrains
Conclusion

HYBRIDIZATION FOR FUEL CELLS
Introduction
The Fuel-Cell Hybrid
Components of a Fuel-Cell Hybrid
Hybridization Concepts
Technical Overview
Systems Analysis
Conclusion

PART VII: Systems Verification and Market Introduction

OFF-GRID POWER SUPPLY AND PREMIUM POWER GENERATION
Introduction
Premium Power Market Overview
Off-Grid
Portable Applications
Discussion

DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS AND MARKET INTRODUCTION
Introduction
Why Demonstration?
Transportation Demonstrations
Stationary Power and Early Market Applications

PART VIII: Knowledge Distribution and Public Awareness

A SUSTAINABLE FRAMEWORK FOR INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION: THE IEA HIA AND ITS STRATEGIC PLAN FOR 2009-2015
Introduction
The IEA HIA Strategic Framework: Overview
The Work Program: Issues and Approaches
IEA HIA: the Past as Prolog
The 2009-2015 IEA HIA Work Program Timeline
Conclusion and Final Remarks

OVERVIEW OF FUEL CELL AND HYDROGEN ORGANIZATIONS AND INITIATIVES WORLDWIDE
Introduction
International Level
European Level
National Level
Regional Level
Partnerships, Initiatives, and Networks with a Specific Agenda
Conclusion

CONTRIBUTIONS FOR EDUCATION AND PUBLIC AWARENESS
Introduction
Information for Interested Laypeople
Education for School Students and University Students
Electrolyzers and Fuel Cells in Education and Training
Training and Qualification for Trade and Industry
Education and Training in the Scientific Arena
Clarification Assistance in the Political Arena
Analysis of Public Awareness
Conclusion

“For researchers who already have some history with fuel cells and want to maintain their knowledge of the general progress of fuel cell research this could be a useful addition to one’s personal library.  For those specifically
interested in pgm catalysis for fuel cells, I would recommend the book “Catalysis in Electrochemistry: From Fundamentals to Strategies for Fuel Cell Development” (5).”  (Platinum Metals Review, 1 January 2013)