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Fuel Cells: Problems and Solutions

Fuel Cells: Problems and Solutions

Vladimir S. Bagotsky

ISBN: 978-0-470-43220-4

Jul 2008

344 pages

Select type: O-Book

Description

The book will extract the most important information on fuel cells, analyze this information, and assess its scientific value and technical importance. It will provide a full yet concise description of all important aspects of fuel cells. The introduction will establish what a fuel cell is and its economic significance. The book will then discuss the working principle of a fuel cell, its history, types of fuel cells, problems, applications, and its place and outlook in internationally.
Preface.

Symbols.

Acronyms and Abbreviations.

PART I: INTRODUCTION.

Introduction. 

Chapter 1: The Working Principle of a Fuel Cell.

1.1 Thermodynamic Aspects.

1.2 Schematic Layout of Fuel Cell Units.

1.3 Types of Fuel Cells.

1.4 Layout of a Real Fuel Cell: The Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell with Liquid Electrolyte.

1.5 Basic Parameters o Fuel Cells.

Chapter 2: The Long History o Fuel Cells.

2.1 The Period Prior t 1894.

2.2 The Period from 1894 to 1960.

2.3 The Period from 1960 to the 1990s.

2.4 The Period after the 1990s.

PART II: MAJOR TYPES OF FUEL CELLS.

Chapter 3: Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC).

3.1 History of the PEMFC.

3.2 Standard PEMFC Version from the 1990s.

3.3 Special Features of PEMFC Operation.

3.4 Platinum Catalyst Poisoning By Traces of CO in the Hydrogen.

3.5 Commercial Activities in Relation to PEMFC.

3.6 Future Development of PEMFC.

3.7 Elevated-Temperature PEMFC (ET-PEMFC).

Chapter 4: Direct Liquid Fuel Cells.

Part A: Direct Methanol Fuel Cells.

4.1 Methanol as Fuel for Fuel Cells.

4.2 Current-Producing Reaction and Thermodynamic Parameters.

4.3 Anodic Oxidation of Methanol.

4.4 Milestones in DMFC Development.

4.5 Membrane Penetration by Methanol (Methanol Crossover).

4.6 Varieties of DMFCs.

4.7 Special Operating Features of DMFCs.

4.8 Practical Models of DMFCs and their Features.

4.9 Problems To Be Solved In Future DMFCs.

Part B: Direct Liquid Fuel Cells.

4.10 The Problem of Replacing Methanol.

4.11 Fuel Cells Using Organic Liquids as Fuels.

4.12 Fuel Cells Using Inorganic Liquids as Fuels.

Chapter 5: Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells.

5.1 Early Work on Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells.

5.2 Special Features of Aqueous Phosphoric Acid Solutions.

5.3 Construction of PAFCs.

5.4 Commercial Production of PAFCs.

5.5 Development of Large Stationary Power Plants.

5.6 The Future for PAFCs.

5.7 Importance of PAFCs for Fuel Cell Development.

Chapter 6: Alkaline Fuel Cells.

6.1 Hydrogen-Oxygen AFCs.

6.2 Alkaline Hydrazine Fuel Cells.

6.3 Anion-Exchange (Hydroxyl Ion Conducting) Membranes.

6.4 Methanol Fuel Cells with Anion-Exchange Membranes.

6.5 Methanol Fuel Cell with an Invariant Alkaline Electrolyte.

Chapter 7: Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells.

7.1 Special Features of High-Temperature Fuel Cells.

7.2 Structure of Hydrogen-Oxygen MCFCs.

7.3 MCFCs with Internal Fuel Reforming.

7.4 Development of MCFC Work.

7.5 The Lifetime of MCFCs.

Chapter 8: Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells.

8.1 Schematic Design of Conventional SOFCs.

8.2 Tubular SOFCs.

8.3 Planar SOFCs.

8.4 Monolithic SOFCs.

8.5 Varieties of SOFCs.

8.6 Utilization of Natural Fuels in SOFCs.

8.7 Interim-Temperature SOFCs.

8.8 Low-Temperature SOFCs.

8.9 Factors Influencing the Lifetime of SOFCs.

Chapter 9: Other Types of Fuel Cells.

9.1. Redox Flow Cells.

9.2 Biological Fuel Cells.

9.3 Semi-Fuel Cells.

9.4 Direct Carbon Fuel Cells.

Chapter 10: Fuel Cells and Electrolysis Processes.

10.1 Water Electrolysis.

10.2 Chlor-Alkali Electrolysis.

10.3 Electrochemical Synthesis Reactions.

PART III: INHERENT SCIENTIFIC AND ENGINEERING PROBLEMS.

Chapter 11: Fuel Management.

11.1 Reforming of Natural Fuel.

11.2 Production of Hydrogen For Autonomous Power Plants.

11.3 Purification of Technical Hydrogen.

11.4 Hydrogen Transport and Storage.

Chapter 12: Electrocatalysis.

12.1 Fundamentals of Electrocatalysis.

12.2 Putting Platinum Catalysts on the Electrodes.

12.3 Supports For Platinum Catalysts.

12.4 Platinum Alloys and Composites as Catalysts for Anodes.

12.5 Non Platinum Catalysts for Fuel Cell Anodes.

12.6 Electrocatalysis of the Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

12.7 The Stability of Electrocatalysts.

Chapter 13: Membranes.

13.1 Fuel-Cell-Related Membrane Problems.

13.2 Work to Overcome Degradation of Nafion Membranes.

13.3 Modification of Nafion® Membranes.

13.4 Membranes Made From Polymers Without Fluorine.

13.5 Membranes Made from Other Materials.

13.6 Matrix-Type Membranes.

13 7 Membranes with Hydroxyl Ion Conduction .

Chapter 14: Small Fuel Cells for Portable Devices.

14.1 Special Operating Features of Mini-Fuel Cells.

14.2 Flat Miniature-Fuel Batteries.

14.3 Silicon-Based Mini-Fuel Cells.

14.4 PCB-Based Mini-Fuel Cells.

14.5 Mini-Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

14.6 The Problem of Air-Breathing Cathodes.

14.7 Prototypes of Power Units with Mini-Fuel Cells.

14.8 Concluding Remarks.

Chapter 15: Mathematical Modeling of Fuel Cells (Felix N. Büchi).

15.1 Zero-Dimensional Models.

15.2 One-Dimensional Models.

15.3 Two Dimensional Models.

15.4 Three Dimensional Models.

15.5 Concluding Remarks .

PART IV: COMMERCIALIZATION OF FUEL CELLS.

Chapter 16: Applications.

16.1 Large Stationary Power Plants.

16.2 Small Stationary Power Units.

16.3 Fuel Cells for Transport Applications.

16.4 Portables.

16.5 Military Applications.

Chapter 17: Fuel Cell Work In Various Countries.

17.1 Driving Forces for Fuel-Cell Work.

17.2 Fuel Cells and the Hydrogen Economy.

17.3 Activities in North America.

17.4 Activities in Europe.

17.5 Activities in Other Countries.

17.6 The Volume of Published Fuel-Cell Work.

17.7 Legislation and Standardization in the Field of Fuel Cells.

Chapter 18: Outlook.

18.1 Periods of Alternating Hope and Disappointment Forever?

18.2 Some Misconceptions (Klaus Müller).

18.3 Ideal Fuel Cells.

18.4 Projected Future of Fuel Cells.

General Bibliography.

Author Index.

Subject Index.

"This book is a masterpiece of scholarly achievement and one of the finest works this reviewer has read in his lengthy academic and industry career. Bagotsky, a highly experienced fuel cell expert, writes brilliantly with objectivity, diligence, accuracy, and depth, presenting all his facts in an exceptionally balanced context...This work stands out as an ideal candidate for a core curriculum resource or laboratory textbook. If libraries purchase one work on fuel cells, this should be it. Engineers and future engineers will find Bagotsky's book a valuable resource to consult as they evaluate the latest claims and promises of new fuel cell technology." (CHOICE, June 2010)