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Fuel and Combustion Systems Safety: What you don't know can kill you!

Fuel and Combustion Systems Safety: What you don't know can kill you!

John R. Puskar

ISBN: 978-1-118-78256-9

Dec 2013

346 pages

$76.99

Description

Practical, easy-to-follow advice that saves lives

Based on the author's thirty years of hands-on experience working in the field of industrial fuel systems and combustion equipment safety, this book integrates safety codes with practical, tested, and proven guidance that makes it viable to specify, operate, and maintain industrial fuel and combustion systems as safely as possible. Readers will learn about fuels, piping, combustion, controls, and risks from more than fifty ""real-life stories"" the author has integrated into each chapter so one can immediately see and understand the concepts presented.

The incidents depicted resulted in forty-six deaths, hundreds of serious injuries, and billions of dollars in losses. Each example is followed by lessons learned, helping readers understand what could have been done to avoid the disaster or minimize the resulting destruction of life and property.

The book begins with an introductory chapter that presents key concepts in industrial fuel and combustion systems safety. Next, chapters cover such topics as:

  • Combustion and natural gas piping basics
  • Gas supply system issues
  • Gas piping repairs and cleaning
  • Fuel trains and combustion equipment
  • Boilers and their unique risks
  • Controlling combustion risks: people, policy, equipment

The final two chapters address risks related to facilities outside of the United States, as well as business contingency planning related to fuels and combustion equipment. The last chapter explains how to plan for and then respond quickly and effectively to fuel or combustion system incidents.

Filled with practical, easy-to-follow advice that saves lives, Fuel and Combustion Systems Safety is an essential reference for everyone from equipment operators and maintenance personnel to corporate risk managers and global safety directors.

Foreword xiii

Preface xv

1 What You Don’t Know Can Kill You 1

1.1 Knowledge Gaps in Operating Fuel Systems and Combustion Equipment / 4

1.2 Managing Fuel Systems and Combustion Equipment Risks / 6

1.3 The Creation of Fuel Systems and Combustion Equipment Codes and Standards / 8

1.4 Fuel System Codes and Standards / 11

1.5 Combustion Equipment Codes and Standards / 12

1.6 Other Widely Recognized Code- and Standards-Related Organizations / 13

1.7 Safety Instrumented Systems and Safety Integrity Levels / 15

1.8 The World of Insurance and Combustion Equipment / 17

1.9 Personal Criminal Liability / 20

Notes and References / 22

2 Combustion Basics 23

2.1 Combustion Defined / 24

2.2 Fuels / 25

2.3 Heat/Ignition / 29

2.4 Oxygen/Air / 29

2.5 Combustion Chemistry / 31

2.6 Environmental Emission Issues / 33

2.7 Basic Burner Design Issues / 35

2.8 Draft Systems / 37

2.9 Understanding and Evaluating Flames / 42

2.10 Fuel/Air Ratio Evaluations / 47

Notes and References / 51

3 Natural Gas Piping Basics 53

3.1 Natural Gas Piping Codes and Standards / 55

3.2 General Industrial Utilities Piping Fundamentals / 56

3.3 Manual Isolation Valves / 57

3.4 Blanks or Blinds / 58

3.5 Steel Pipe Joining Methods / 60

3.6 Fastener Issues: When a Bolt Is Not Simply a Bolt / 63

Notes and References / 64

4 Gas Supply System Issues 65

4.1 Incoming Natural Gas Systems / 66

4.2 Piping Corrosion Protection / 71

4.3 Considerations for Limiting Access to Service Entrances / 77

4.4 Gas Supplies From Digesters and Landfills / 77

4.5 Incoming Propane Service Considerations / 79

Notes and References / 80

5 Gas Piping Repairs and Cleaning 81

5.1 Key Steps to Safe Gas Piping Repairs / 82

5.2 Planning the Project / 83

5.3 Isolation / 84

5.4 Prerepair Venting and Purging of Flammable Gases / 85

5.5 Leak Checking and Pressure Testing / 89

5.6 Postrepair Purge / 91

5.7 Reintroduction of Natural Gas: Startup / 91

5.8 Gas Sampling and Detection / 92

5.9 Nitrogen-Handling Issues to Consider / 95

5.10 The World of Gas Line Cleaning / 101

5.11 NFPA 54: Changes Related to Purging Issues / 110

5.12 Highlights of and Commentary Regarding the New NFPA 56 Standard / 111

Notes and References / 116

6 Understanding Fuel Trains and Combustion Equipment 117

6.1 Fuel Train Components and Their Purpose / 117

6.2 Basic Operations of Fuel Trains / 126

6.3 Oil Firing Systems / 138

6.4 Oven and Furnace Types / 140

Notes and References / 145

7 Understanding Boilers and Their Special Risks 147

7.1 Boiler Incident Statistics / 152

7.2 Boiler Types / 153

7.3 Boiler-Water-Level Safety Devices / 160

7.4 Boiler Pressure Safety Controls / 165

7.5 Safety Relief Valves / 165

7.6 Steam System Piping Special Issues / 168

Notes and References / 171

8 Controlling Combustion Risks: People 173

8.1 Personnel Issues / 175

8.2 Training / 177

8.3 Culture Changes / 179

8.4 Human Layers of Protection Analysis / 183

8.5 Contractor Issues / 192

Notes and References / 195

9 Controlling Combustion Risks: Policies 197

9.1 Policy Commandments for Fuel and Combustion System Safety / 199

9.2 Commandment I / 199

9.3 Commandment II / 201

9.4 Commandment III / 204

9.5 Commandment IV / 208

9.6 Commandment V / 208

9.7 Commandment VI / 209

9.8 Commandment VII / 215

9.9 Commandment VIII / 217

9.10 Commandment IX / 219

9.11 Commandment X / 222

Notes and References / 224

10 Controlling Combustion Risks: Equipment 227

10.1 Controlling Equipment Risks / 229

10.2 Testing of Fuel Train Safety Interlocks / 234

10.3 Rebuilt Safety Controls / 245

10.4 Valve Seat Leakage Tightness Testing / 246

10.5 Refractory and Equipment Outer Skin Problems / 253

Notes and References / 253

11 Global Perspective on Fuel and Combustion System Risks 255

11.1 Global Perspectives on Fuel and Combustion System Risks / 256

11.2 Highlights of the European Combustion World / 257

11.3 Fuel System Risks in Other Countries / 259

11.4 Differences in Types of Systems and Equipment From U.S. to Foreign Operations / 263

11.5 Fuel Issues / 265

Notes and References / 266

12 Business Contingency Planning 269

12.1 Business Interruptions From Fuel and Combustion Systems / 271

12.2 Sparing Philosophies for Components / 276

12.3 Flood and Water Damage / 277

12.4 When There is an Incident / 283

12.5 Conclusion / 285

Notes and References / 286

Appendix: Analysis of Real-Life Stories 287

Index 295

“The reviewers give this book a “thumbs up” and recommend it to safety professionals as a good read.”  (Professional Safety, 1 November 2014)