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Functional Polymers by Post-Polymerization Modification: Concepts, Guidelines and Applications

Functional Polymers by Post-Polymerization Modification: Concepts, Guidelines and Applications

Patrick Theato (Editor), Harm-Anton Klok (Editor)

ISBN: 978-3-527-65542-7

Jan 2013

436 pages

Description

n modern polymer science a variety of polymerization methods for the direct synthesis of polymers bearing functional groups are known. However, there is still a large number of functional groups that may either completely prevent polymerization or lead to side reactions. Post-polymerization modification, also known as polymer-analogous modification, is an alternative approach to overcome these limitations. It is based on the polymerization of monomers with functional groups that are inert towards the polymerization conditions but allow a quantitative conversion in a subsequent reaction step yielding a broad range of other functional groups. Thus, diverse libraries of functional polymers with identical average degrees of polymerization but variable side chain functionality may easily be generated.

Filling the gap for a book dealing with synthetic strategies and recent developments, this volume provides a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the field of post-polymerization modification.

As such, the international team of expert authors covers a wide range of topics, including new synthetic techniques utilizing different reactive groups for post-polymerization modifications with examples ranging from modification of biomimetic and biological polymers to modification of surfaces.

With its guidelines this is an indispensable and interdisciplinary reference for scientists working in both academic and industrial polymer research.
HISTORY OF POST-POLYMERIZATION MODIFICATION
Introduction
Post-polymerization Modification via Thiol-ene Addition
Post-polymerization Modification of Epoxides, Anhydrides, Oxazolines, and Isocyanates
Post-polymerization Modification of Active Esters
Post-polymerization Modification via Thiol-Disulfide Exchange
Post-polymerization Modification via Diels-Alder Reactions
Post-polymerization Modification via Michael-Type Addition
Post-polymerization Modification via Azide Alkyne Cycloaddition Reactions
Post-polymerization Modification of Ketones and Aldehydes
Post-polymerization Modifications via Other Highly Efficient Reactions
Concluding Remarks

POST-POLYMERIZATION MODIFICATIONS VIA ACTIVE ESTERS
Introduction
Active Esters in the Side Group
Star Polymers
Active Esters at the End Groups
Controlled Positioning of Active Ester Moieties
Summary

THIOL-ENE BASED FUNCTIONALIZATION OF POLYMERS
Introduction
General Considerations and Mechanisms
Functionalization of Polymers
Summary

THIOL-YNE CHEMISTRY IN POLYMER AND MATERIALS SCIENCE
Introduction
The Thiol-yne Reaction in Small-Molecule Chemistry
The Thiol-yne Reaction in Polymer and Material Synthesis

DESIGN AND SYNTHESIS OF MALEIMIDE GROUP CONTAINING POLYMERIC MATERIALS VIA THE DIELS-ALDER/RETRO DIELS-ALDER STRATEGY
Introduction
Maleimide Functional Group Containing Polymeric Materials
The Diels-Alder/Retro Diels-Alder Cycloaddition-Cycloreversion Reactions
Application of Diels-Alder/Retro Diels-Alder Reaction to Synthesize Maleimide-Containing Polymers
Conclusions

THE SYNTHESIS OF END-FUNCTIONAL RING-OPENING METATHESIS POLYMERS
Introduction
End-Functionalization Methods in General
Functionalization during Initiation
Functionalization after Propagation
Functionalization during Propagation
Conclusions and Outlook

FUNCTIONAL POLYMERS WITH CONTROLLED MICROSTRUCTURE BASED ON STYRENE AND N-SUBSTITUTED MALEIMIDES
Introduction
Background on Radical Copolymerization of Styrene and Maleimides
Precise Incorporation of Maleimide Units on Polystyrene Backbone
Tuning a Simple Technique for the Preparation of Sequence-Controlled Polymers to the Elaboration of Functionalized Well-Defined Macromolecules
Summary and Outlook

TEMPERATURE-TRIGGERED FUNCTIONALIZATION OF POLYMERS
Introduction
Temperature-Triggered Alteration of Polymer Property
Conclusions

NEW FUNCTIONAL POLYMERS USING HOST?GUEST CHEMISTRY
Introduction
Polymers with Responsive Three-Dimensional Structures
Polymer Probes for Specific Chemical Sensing
Responsive Soft Materials
Functional Polyrotaxanes

GLYCOPOLYMERS VIA POST-POLYMERIZATION MODIFICATION TECHNIQUES
Introduction
Synthesis and Controlled Polymerization of Glycomonomers
Post-polymerization Modification of Polymer Scaffolds to Synthesize Glycopolymers
Azide -
Alkyne Click Reactions
Utilizing Thiol-Based Click Reactions
Thiol-ene Click Reactions
Thiol-yne Click Reactions
Thiol-Halogen Substitution Reactions
Alkyne/Alkene Glycosides: 'Backward' Click Reactions
Post-polymerization Glycosylation of Nonvinyl Backbone Polymers
Conclusions and Outlook

DESIGN OF POLYVALENT POLYMER THERAPEUTICS
Introduction
Polyvalent Polymer Therapeutics
Conclusions

POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION OF PROTEINS INCORPORATING NONNATURAL AMINO ACIDS
Posttranslational Modification of Existing Amino Acids within Protein Chain
Exploiting Biosynthetic Machinery: Cotranslational Approach
Intein-Inspired Ligation Approach
Combined Approach
Protein and Polymer Conjugates
Modulating the Physicochemical Properties of Protein Polymers via NAA Incorporation
Future in Combined Technologies to Fabricate Tailored Protein-Polymer Conjugates as New Materials
Conclusion and Future Perspectives

FUNCTIONALIZATION OF POROUS POLYMERS FROM HIGH-INTERNAL-PHASE EMULSIONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS
Introduction
Functionalization of polyHIPEs
Applications
Conclusions

POST-POLYMERIZATION MODIFICATION OF POLYMER BRUSHES
Introduction
Synthesis and Strategies for Functional Polymer Brushes
Applications of Polymer Brush Modification: Multifunctional Surfaces via Photopatterning
Conclusions and Future Outlook

COVALENT LAYER-BY-LAYER ASSEMBLY USING REACTIVE POLYMERS
Introduction
Overview of Layer-by-Layer Assembly: Conventional versus Covalent Assembly
Scope and Organization
Covalent LbL Assembly Based on `'Click Chemistry'
Reactive LbL Assembly Using Azlactone-Functionalized Polymers
Other Reactions and Other Approaches
Concluding Remarks

INDEX