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Functional Polymers in Food Science: From Technology to Biology, Volume 2: Food Processing

Functional Polymers in Food Science: From Technology to Biology, Volume 2: Food Processing

Giuseppe Cirillo (Editor), Umile Gianfranco Spizzirri (Editor), Francesca Iemma (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-10858-0

Mar 2015

352 pages

Description

Polymers are an important part in everyday life; products made from polymers range from sophisticated articles, such as biomaterials, to aerospace materials. One of the reasons for the great popularity exhibited by polymers is their ease of processing. Polymer properties can be tailored to meet specific needs by varying the “atomic composition” of the repeat structure, by varying molecular weight and by the incorporation (via covalent and non-covalent interactions) of an enormous range of compounds to impart specific activities.

In food science, the use of polymeric materials is widely explored, from both an engineering and a nutraceutical point of view. Regarding the engineering application, researchers have discovered the most suitable materials for intelligent packaging which preserves the food quality and prolongs the shelf-life of the products. Furthermore, in agriculture, specific functionalized polymers are used to increase the efficiency of treatments and reduce the environmental pollution. In the nutraceutical field, because consumers are increasingly conscious of the relationship between diet and health, the consumption of high quality foods has been growing continuously. Different compounds (e.g. high quality proteins, lipids and polysaccharides) are well known to contribute to the enhancement of human health by different mechanisms, reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease, coronary disease, and hypertension.

This second volume focuses on the importance of polymers and functional food and in food processing

Preface xiii

1 Functional Polymers for Food Processing 1
Giuseppe Cirillo, Umile Gianfranco Spizzirri and Francesca Iemma

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Food Preparation 2

1.3 Food Processing: Rheology 5

1.4 Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals 5

References 6

2 Polyacrylamide Addition to Soils: Impacts on Soil Structure and Stability 9
Guy J. Levy and David N. Warrington

2.1 Introduction 9

2.2 Polyacrylamide (PAM) Properties and Interactions with Soil 10

2.3  Polymer Effects on Aggregate Stability 14

2.4 PAM Effects on Soil Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity 16

2.5 PAM Effects on Infiltration, Runoff and Erosion 19

2.6 Concluding Comments 25

References 26

3 Functional Polymeric Membrane in Agriculture 33
Yuichi Mori

3.1 Introduction 33

3.2 Principle of Imec 34

3.3 Imec System 37

3.4 Plant Cultivation by Imec System 39

3.5 Comparison between Imec and Hydroponics 40

3.6 Current Domestic State of Imec Growth 42

3.7 Imec Vegetables besides Tomato 43

3.8 Imec Changes Barren Land to Farming Land 43

3.9 Current State of Overseas Growth of Imec 45

References 45

4 Enzymes Used in Animal Feed: Leading Technologies and Forthcoming Developments 47
Daniel Menezes-Blackburn and Ralf Greiner

4.1 Introduction: General Outline and Value Drivers 48

4.2 Feed Digestive Enzymes 49

4.3 Actual and Potential Feed Enzyme Market 59

4.4 Advances in Feed Enzyme Technology 60

4.5 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 63

Acknowledgments 63

References 63

5 Interaction of Biomolecules with Synthetic Polymers during Food Processing 75
K. Narsaiah

5.1 Introduction 75

5.2 Basic Biomolecules in Food and Their Interactions with Synthetic Polymers 76

5.3 Membranes for Food Processing 78

5.4 Chromatography for Food Processing 91

5.5 Analogy of Ultrafiltration and Size Exclusion Chromatography 92

5.6 Future Perspectives of Membranes and Chromatography 93

References 94

6 Rheological Properties of Non-starch Polysaccharides in Food Science 99
Anna Ptaszek, Pawel Ptaszek and Marcin Lukasiewicz

6.1 Non-starch Hydrocolloids 99

6.2 Rheological Properties of Non-starch Hydrocolloid Systems 108

References 129

7 Polysaccharides as Bioactive Components of Functional Food 133
Patricia Peso-Echarri, Carlos Alberto González-Bermúdez, Gaspar Ros-Berruezo, Carmen Martinez-Graciá  and Carmen Frontela-Saseta

7.1 Introduction 134

7.2 Functional Foods 135

7.3 Polysaccharides from Seaweed 137

7.4 Functional Activity of Polysaccharides 141

7.5 Conclusions 150

References 150

8 Milk Proteins: Functionality and Use in Food Industry 159
Seval Andiç and Gökhan Boran

8.1 Introduction 159

8.2 Milk Proteins 161

8.3 Milk Protein Products 163

8.4 Functional Properties of Milk Proteins 166

8.5 Conclusions 174

References 175

9 Bioactive Peptides from Meat Proteins as Functional Food Components 181
Jianping Wu, Forough Jahandideh, Wenlin Yu and Kaustav Majumder

9.1 Introduction 181

9.2 Generation of Bioactive Peptides in Meat 183

9.3 Meat-Derived Bioactive Proteins and Peptides 184

9.4 Conclusion 196

References 197

10 Antioxidant Polymers: Engineered Materials as Food Preservatives and Functional Foods 209
Manuela Curcio and Nevio Picci

10.1 Introduction 209

10.2 Antioxidant Polymers as Food Additives 211

10.3 Antioxidant Polymers as Dietary Supplements and Functional Foods 215

10.4 Conclusion 223

References 223

11 Biopolymers for Administration and Gastrointestinal Delivery of Functional Food Ingredients and Probiotic Bacteria 231
Kasipathy Kailasapathy

11.1 Introduction 231

11.2 Characteristics of the Gastrointestinal Tract 233

11.3 Bioencapsulation Techniques for Administration and Gastrointestinal Delivery 237

11.4 Polymeric Materials for Microencapsulation 247

11.5 Biopolymers in the Encapsulation of Nonmicrobial Functional Food Ingredients 250

11.6 Biopolymers in the Encapsulation of Functional Microbes (Probiotics) for Administration and Gastrointestinal Delivery 255

11.7 Conclusion and Future Trends 258

References 259

12 Cyclodextrin as a Food Additive in Food Processing 267
Katia Martina and Giancarlo Cravotto

12.1 Introduction 268

12.2 Inclusion Complex Formation 270

12.3 Covalent Polymer Networks Containing Cyclodextrins 271

12.4 Regulatory Issues for CDs as Food Additives and Use in Food Processing 271

12.5 Applications of CD in Food 272

12.6 Cholesterol Sequestration 273

12.7 Taste Modifiers 274

12.8 Product Stability and Food Preservatives - Improving Shelf Life 277

12.9 Nutraceutical Carriers - Functional Foods 277

12.10 Packaging 278

12.11 Conclusion 281

References 282

13 Enzymes and Inhibitors in Food and Health 289
Nana Akyaa Ackaah-Gyasi, Priyanki Patel, Julie Ducharme, Hui Yin Fan and Benjamin K. Simpson

13.1 Introduction 290

13.2 Traditional Methods of Producing Enzymes 294

13.3 Biotechnological Methods for Producing Enzyme 299

13.4 Enzymes in Food Processing 309

13.5 Endogenous Enzyme Inhibitors from Food Materials 313

13.6 Concluding Remarks 320

References 321

Index 329