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Fundamentals of Conjugated Polymer Blends, Copolymers and Composites: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications

Fundamentals of Conjugated Polymer Blends, Copolymers and Composites: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications

Parveen Saini (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-13710-8 April 2015 800 Pages

 E-Book

$196.99

Description

Since their discovery in 1977, the evolution of conducting polymers has revolutionized modern science and technology. These polymers enjoy a special status in the area of materials science yet they are not as popular among young readers or common people when compared to other materials like metals, paper, plastics, rubber, textiles, ceramics and composites like concrete. Most importantly, much of the available literature in the form of papers, specific review articles and books is targeted either at advanced readers (scientists/technologists/engineers/senior academicians) or for those who are already familiar with the topic (doctoral/postdoctoral scholars). For a beginner or even school/college students, such compilations are bit difficult to access/digest. In fact, they need proper introduction to the topic of conducting polymers including their discovery, preparation, properties, applications and societal impact, using suitable examples and already known principles/knowledge/phenomenon.   Further, active participation of readers in terms of “question & answers”, “fill-in-the-blanks”, “numerical” along with suitable answer key is necessary to maintain the interest and to initiate the “thought process”. The readers also need to know about the drawbacks and any hazards of such materials. Therefore, I believe that a comprehensive source on the science/technology of conducting polymers which maintains a link between grass root fundamentals and state-of-the-art R&D is still missing from the open literature. 

Foreword by Sir Richard Friend xv

Preface xvi

Part 1: Multiphase Systems: Synthesis, Properties and Applications

1 Conjugated Polymer-based Blends, Copolymers, and Composites: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications 3
Parveen Saini

1.1 Introduction 4

1.2 CPs/ICPs-Based Blends 7

1.2.1 Classification of CPs/ICPs-Based Blends 8

1.3 CPs/ICPs-Based Copolymers (CCPs) 11

1.3.1 Types of CPs/ICPs-Based Copolymers 11

1.3.2 Sub-Classification of Linear or Graft BCPs 20

1.4 CPs/ICPs-Based Composites/Nanocomposites/Hybrids 23

1.4.1 Categorization of CPs/ICPs-Based NCs 26

1.5 Interpenetrating/Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Network (IPN/SIPN) 29

1.6 Synthesis of CPs/ICPs-Based BLNs, CCPs, and CMPs/NCs/HYBs 30

1.6.1 Synthesis of Undoped CPs-Based BLNs 30

1.6.2 Synthesis of Conjugated Polymers-Based Copolymers 39

1.6.3 CPs/ICPs-Based CMPs/NCs 52

1.7 Applications of CPs/ICPs-Based BLNs, CCPs, and CMPs/NCS/HYBs 63

1.7.1 ICP-Based Systems 63

1.7.2 CPs-Based Systems 63

1.8 Conclusions 79

Acknowledgments 80

References 80

2 Progress in Polyaniline Composites with Transition Metal Oxides 119
Gordana Ćirić-Marjanović

2.1 Introduction 119

2.2 PANI/Transition Metal Oxide Composites 120

2.2.1 PANI Composites with Oxides of the Copper Group of Transition Metals 121

2.2.2 PANI Composites with Oxides of the Zinc Group of Transition Metals 121

2.2.3 PANI Composites with Oxides of the Scandium Group of Transition Metals 124

2.2.4 PANI Composites with Oxides of the Titanium Group of Transition Metals 126

2.2.5 PANI Composites with Oxides of the Vanadium Group of Transition Metals 131

2.2.6 PANI Composites with Oxides of the Chromium Group of Transition Metals 132

2.2.7 PANI Composites with Oxides of the Manganese Group of Transition Metals 137

2.2.8 PANI Composites with Oxides of Iron, Cobalt, and Nickel Groups of Transition Metals 140

2.3 Conclusions and Outlook 151

Abbreviations 152

References 153

3 Conjugated-Polymer/Quantum-Confined Nanomaterials-Based Hybrids for Optoelectronic Applications 163
Anuushka Pal, Parveen Saini, and Sameer Sapra

3.1 Introduction 164

3.2 Quantum-Confined Nanomaterials (QCNs) 165

3.2.1 Inorganic Quantum-Confined Nanomaterials (QCNs) 166

3.2.2 Organic Quantum-Confined Nanomaterials (QCNs) 167

3.3 Synthetic Approaches for Quantum-Confined Nanomaterials (QCNs) 168

3.3.1 Synthesis of Inorganic Quantum-Confined Nanomaterials 169

3.3.2 Synthesis of Organic Quantum-Confined Nanomaterials 174

3.3.3 Optical Properties 176

3.4 Conjugated-Polymer/Quantum-Confined Nanomaterials (CP/QCN) Hybrids 183

3.4.1 Methodologies for Making Conjugated-Polymer/Inorganic QCN Hybrids 183

3.4.2 Chemical Methods 184

3.5 Optoelectronic Applications of Hybrids 190

3.5.1 Hybrid Solar Cell 190

3.5.2 Light-Emitting Diodes 201

3.5.3 GQDs/Conjugated-Polymer-Based Counter Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 208

3.6 Outlook and Perspective: Current Challenges and Future Scope/Prospects 210

Acknowledgments 211

References 211

4 Graphene/Conjugated Polymer Nanocomposites for Optoelectronic and Biological Applications 229
Tapas Kuila, Yu Dong Sheng, and Naresh Chandra Murmu

4.1 Introduction 230

4.2 Graphene/Conjugated Polymer Nanocomposites 231

4.2.1 Preparation of Graphene/Conjugated Polymer Nanocomposites 232

4.2.2 Different Types of Conjugated Polymer Nanocomposites and Their Properties 234

4.2.3 Characterizations of Graphene/Conjugated Polymer Nanocomposites 252

4.3 Applications of Graphene/Conjugated Polymer Nanocomposites 263

4.3.1 Optoelectronic Application 263

4.3.2 Biological Applications 268

4.4 Conclusions and Future Scope 270

Acknowledgements 271

References 271

Part 2: Energy Harvesting and Storage Materials

5 Conjugated Polymers-Based Blends, Composites and Copolymers for Photovoltaics 283
Ashish Dubey, Parveen Saini, and Qiquan Qiao

5.1 Introduction 284

5.2 Organic Photovoltaic (OPV) Cells 284

5.3 OPV Device Architecture and Working Mechanism 287

5.4 Solar Cell Terminologies and Characterization Parameters 290

5.4.1 Air Mass (AM) 290

5.4.2 Open-Circuit Voltage (Voc) 291

5.4.3 Short Circuit Current Density (Jsc) 292

5.4.4 Fill Factor (FF) 292

5.4.5 Power Conversion Efficiency (PCE) () 293

5.4.6 Quantum Efficiency (QE) 294

5.5 CPs-Based Blends, Composites and Copolymers for OPVs 295

5.5.1 Polymer-Fullerene BHJ Blends 296

5.5.2 Organic–Inorganic Composites/Hybrids 303

5.5.3 Polymer/Carbon Nanotube Composites 307

5.5.4 Polymer/Graphene-Based Composites 312

5.6 Conjugated Copolymers for PVs 314

5.6.1 Donor–Acceptor Type Alternating Copolymers 315

5.6.2 Block Copolymers with Built in p-Type Donor and n-Type Acceptor 320

5.7 Conclusions: Current Challenges and Prospects 326

Acknowledgements 327

References 327

6 Conducting Polymer-Based Nanocomposites for Thermoelectric Applications 339
Qin Yao, Lidong Chen, and Sanyin Qu

6.1 Introduction 340

6.2 Synthesis Methods 346

6.2.1 In Situ Polymerization 346

6.2.2 Solution Mixing 354

6.2.3 Mechanical Mixing 359

6.3 TE Properties of CP/Inorganic Nanocomposites 361

6.3.1 CP/CNT Composite 362

6.3.2 CP/Graphene Composites 368

6.3.3 CP/Metal Composites 371

6.3.4 CP/Metal Compounds Composites 373

6.4 Summary 376

References 377

7 Conjugated-Polymer/Inorganic Nanocomposites as Electrode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries 379
Qingsheng Gao, Lichun Yang, and Ning Liu

7.1 Introduction 379

7.2 Nanocomposites of Conjugated Polymer/Inorganic as Cathode Materials 383

7.2.1 LiFePO4 383

7.2.2 MnO2 386

7.2.3 V2O5 393

7.3 Nanocomposites of Conjugated Polymers/Inorganic as Anode Materials 402

7.3.1 Silicon 402

7.3.2 SnO2 405

7.3.3 Other Conjugated Polymer-Based Anode Materials 410

7.4 Conclusion 412

Acknowledgments 413

References 413

8 Polypyrrole/Inorganic Nanocomposites for Supercapacitors 419
Peng Liu

8.1 Introduction 419

8.2 Polypyrrole/Carbon Nanocomposites 420

8.2.1 Carbon Nanoparticles 421

8.2.2 Carbon Nanofibers 421

8.2.3 Carbon Nanotubes 422

8.2.4 Graphene and Derivatives 427

8.3 Polypyrrole/Metal Oxide Nanocomposites 432

8.3.1 Manganese Oxides 432

8.3.2 Titanium Oxides 435

8.3.3 Ruthenium Oxides 436

8.3.4 Other Metal Oxides 436

8.4 Polypyrrole/Clay Nanocomposites 437

8.5 Other Polypyrrole/Inorganic Nanocomposites 438

8.6 Polypyrrole Ternary Composites 439

8.7 Conclusion and Perspectives 443

Acknowledgments 444

References 444

Part 3: Advanced Materials for Environmental Applications

9 Intrinsically Conducting Polymer-Based Blends and Composites for Electromagnetic Interference Shielding: Theoretical and Experimental Aspects 451
Parveen Saini

9.1 Introduction 451

9.2 Shielding Phenomenon 453

9.2.1 Theoretical Shielding Effectiveness 454

9.2.2 Experimental Shielding Effectiveness 467

9.2.3 Complex Permittivity and Permeability 469

9.2.4 Shielding Materials and Design Considerations 472

9.2.5 Synthesis of ICPs-Based Hybrids (Blends and Composites) 475

9.2.6 Electrical Properties of ICPs-Based Blends and Composites 481

9.2.7 EMI Shielding Performance of ICPs-Loaded Blends and Composites 483

9.2.8 EMI Shielding Performance of ICP-Matrix-Based Composites 492

9.2.9 EMI Shielding and Microwave Absorbing Performance of ICPs/Filler Hybrid-Loaded Polymer Matrix Composites 505

9.3 Conclusions 507

References 508

10 Anticorrosion Coatings Based on Conjugated Polymers 519
M. Federica De Riccardis

10.1 Introduction 519

10.2 Basic Concepts of Corrosion 522

10.3 Corrosion Prevention 524

10.4 Corrosion Tests 527

10.4.1 Immersion Tests 528

10.4.2 Cabinet Tests 529

10.4.3 Electrochemical Tests 530

10.5 Conjugated Polymers as Anticorrosion Layers 538

10.6 Conjugated Polymers Nanocomposite as Anticorrosion Layers 552

10.7 Conclusions 574

References 575

11 Conjugated Polymer-Based Composites for Water Purification 581
Jiaxing Li, Yongshun Huang, and Dadong Shao

11.1 Introduction 582

11.2 Adsorption Phenomenon 583

11.2.1 Adsorption Isotherms 584

11.2.2 Adsorption Kinetics 588

11.2.3 Adsorption Thermodynamics 589

11.3 PANI-Related Composites in Water Purification 591

11.3.1 PANI/Inorganic Composites 592

11.3.2 PANI/Organic Composites 594

11.4 PPy-Related Composites in Water Purification 601

11.4.1 PPy/Inorganic Composites 601

11.4.2 PPy/Organic Composites 602

11.5 Miscellaneous Conjugated Polymer Composites in Water Purification 606

11.6 Conclusion 609

Acknowledgment 609

References 609

Part 4: Sensing and Responsive Materials

12 Conjugated Polymer Nanocomposites-Based Chemical Sensors 621
Pradip Kar, Arup Choudhury, and Sushil Kumar Verma

12.1 Introduction 622

12.2 Conjugated Polymer Nanocomposites as Chemical Receptor 626

12.3 General Methods for Preparation of Conjugated Polymer Nanocomposite 631

12.3.1 Ex-situ Method 632

12.3.2 In-situ Method 642

12.4 Influence of Properties of Conjugated Polymer by Interaction with Nano-Filler 644

12.5 Fabrication of Conjugated Polymer Nanocomposite Layer/Film for Sensor 647

12.5.1 Electrochemical Deposition 647

12.5.2 Pellet Preparation 648

12.5.3 Dip Coating 649

12.5.4 Spin Coating 651

12.5.5 Drop Coating 652

12.5.6 Film Casting 653

12.5.7 Printing 654

12.5.8 Other Methods 655

12.6 Chemical Sensing Performance of Conjugated Polymer-Based Nanocomposites 656

12.6.1 Sensing by Conjugated Polymer/Organic Nanocomposites 656

12.6.2 Sensing by Conjugated Polymer/Inorganic Nanocomposites 658

12.7 Mechanism of Chemical Sensing by Conjugated Polymer Nanocomposite 670

12.7.1 Strong Chemical Interaction with the Conjugated Polymer 672

12.7.2 Weak Physical Interaction with the Conjugated Polymer 674

12.7.3 Weak Physical Interaction with the Nanomaterial 677

12.8 Challenges and Prospects 679

References 681

13 Conjugated Polymer Nanocomposites for Biosensors 687
Deepshikha Saini

13.1 Introduction 687

13.2 Synthesis of Conducting Polymer Nanocomposites 690

13.2.1 Conducting Polymer Nanocomposites with Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) 691

13.2.2 Conducting Polymer Nanocomposites with Metal Nanoparticles 694

13.2.3 Conducting Polymer Nanocomposites with Metal Oxides 696

13.2.4 Conducting Polymer Nanocomposites with Metal Phthalocyanines and Porphyrins 698

13.2.5 Conducting Polymer Nanocomposites with Biological Materials 700

13.2.6 Conducting Polymer Nanocomposites with Graphene 702

13.3 Current and Emerging Applications of Conducting Polymer Nanocomposites in Biosensors 706

13.3.1 Catalytic Biosensors 707

13.3.2 Bioaffinity Sensor 714

13.4 Conclusions and Outlook 719

References 722

14 Polyaniline Nanocomposites for Smart Electrorheological Fluid Applications 731
Jianbo Yin and Xiaopeng Zhao

14.1 Introduction 731

14.2 PANI as Filler for ER Fluids 734

14.3 Core/Shell-Structured PANI Nanocomposites for ER Fluids 737

14.3.1 PANI-Coated Core/Shell-Structured Nanocomposites 737

14.3.2 PANI-Encapsulated Core/Shell-Structured Nanocomposites 743

14.4 Pani-Intercalated Nanocomposites for ER Fluids 747

14.4.1 PANI/Clay Nanocomposites 747

14.4.2 PANI/Mesoporous Silica Nanocomposites 750

14.5 Conclusions 752

Acknowledgments 752

References 752

Index 759