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Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems, 4th Edition

Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems, 4th Edition

Michael N. DeMers

ISBN: 978-0-470-45913-3 December 2008 464 Pages

 E-Book

$48.00

Description

The Fourth Edition of this well-received text on the principles of geographic information systems (GIS) continues the author's style of "straight talk" in its presentation and is written to be accessible and easy to follow. Unlike most other GIS texts, this book covers GIS design and modeling, reflecting the belief that modeling and analysis are at the heart of GIS. This approach helps students understand and use GIS technology.

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Chapter 0 Spatial Learner’s Permit 1

Spatial Terminology 2

Applying Spatial Terms 5

Spatial Cognition 8

Spatial Quantities 10

Spherical Earth 11

Concluding Remarks 13

Terms 14

Practice Exercises 14

References 16

UNIT 1 INTRODUCTION 17

Chapter 1 Introduction to Digital Geography 19

Learning Objectives 19

Geographic Information Systems Defined 19

A Brief History of Geographic Information Systems 23

GIS as a Growth Industry 25

Sample Application Areas of GIS 26

The Study of GIS 29

Terms 31

Review Questions 31

References 31

UNIT 2 DIGITAL GEOGRAPHIC DATA AND MAPS 33

Chapter 2 Basic Geographic Concepts 35

Learning Objectives 36

Developing Spatial Awareness 37

Spatial Measurement Levels 40

Spatial Location and Reference 42

Spatial Patterns 45

Geographic Data Collection 47

Populations and Sampling Schemes 52

Making Inferences from Samples 54

Terms 56

Review Questions 56

References 57

Chapter 3 Map Basics 58

Learning Objectives 59

Abstract Nature of Maps 59

A Paradigm Shift in Cartography 60

Map Scale 61

More Map Characteristics 63

Map Projections 63

Grid Systems for Mapping 66

Map Symbolism 73

Map Abstraction and Cartographic Databases 77

Terms 78

Review Questions 78

References 79

Chapter 4 GIS Computer Structure Basics 81

Learning Objectives 82

A Quick Review of the Map as an Abstraction of Space 82

Some Basic Computer File Structures 84

Simple Lists 84

Ordered Sequential Files 85

Indexed Files 86

Database Management Structures 88

Hierarchical Data Structures 88

Network Systems 90

Relational Database Management Systems 92

Some Basic Computer Terminology 95

Terms 96

Review Questions 97

References 97

Chapter 5 GIS Data Models 99

Learning Objectives 100

Graphic Representation of Entities and Attributes 100

GIS System Data Models 104

Raster Models 105

Raster Surface Models 106

Compact Storing of Raster Data 108

Commercial Raster Compaction Products 110

Vector Models 111

An Object-Oriented Data Model 117

Compacting Vector Data Models 117

A Vector Model to Represent Surfaces 118

Systems Models 119

Terms 123

Review Questions 123

References 124

UNIT 3 INPUT, STORAGE, AND EDITING 127

Chapter 6 GIS Input 129

Learning Objectives 129

Primary Data 130

Input Devices 131

Reference Frameworks and Transformations 134

Map Preparation and the Digitizing Process 137

What to Input 140

How Much to Input 141

Methods of Vector Input 142

Methods of Raster Input 143

Remote Sensing Data Input 146

GPS Data Input 149

Secondary Data 150

Metadata and Metadata Standards 151

Terms 154

Review Questions 154

References 155

Chapter 7 Data Storage and Editing 157

Learning Objectives 158

GIS Database Storage 158

Basic Error Types 160

Consequences of Errors 161

Error Detection and Editing 162

Entity Errors: Vector 162

Attribute Errors: Raster and Vector 168

Dealing with Projection Changes 171

Joining Adjacent Maps: Edge Matching 172

Conflation 173

Templating 174

Terms 175

Review Questions 175

References 176

UNIT 4 SPATIAL ANALYSIS 177

Chapter 8 Query and Description 179

Learning Objectives 180

Model Flowcharting 180

GIS Data Query 181

Locating and Identifying Spatial Objects 184

Defining Spatial Characteristics 185

Point Attributes 186

Line Attributes 187

Area Attributes 189

Working with Higher-Level Objects 192

Higher-Level Point Objects 192

Higher-Level Line Objects 195

Higher-Level Area Objects 198

Terms 199

Review Questions 200

References 200

Chapter 9 Measurement 202

Learning Objectives 202

Measuring Length 203

Measuring Polygons 205

Measuring Polygon Lengths 205

Measuring Perimeters of Polygons 206

Calculating Areas of Polygonal Features 207

Measuring Shape 208

Measuring Sinuosity 209

Measuring Polygon Shape 209

Measuring Distance 213

Euclidean Distance 213

Functional Distance 215

Terms 223

Review Questions 224

References 225

Chapter 10 Classification 227

Learning Objectives 228

Classification Principles 228

Elements of Reclassification 230

Neighborhood Functions 231

Roving Windows: Filters 232

Static Neighborhood Functions 235

Buffers 239

Terms 244

Review Questions 244

References 245

Chapter 11 Statistical Surfaces 247

Learning Objectives 248

What are Surfaces? 249

Surface Mapping 250

Nontopographical Surfaces 252

Sampling the Statistical Surface 253

The DEM 254

Interpolation 255

Linear Interpolation 256

Methods of Nonlinear Interpolation 257

Problems of Interpolation 262

Terms 266

Review Questions 267

References 268

Chapter 12 Terrain Analysis 269

Learning Objectives 270

Terrain Reclassification 270

Elevation Zones 270

Slope Analysis 272

Aspect Analysis 273

Shape or Form 275

Viewshed Analysis 279

Soundshed Analysis 282

Cut and Fill 283

Terms 284

Review Questions 284

References 286

Chapter 13 Spatial Arrangement 288

Learning Objectives 289

Point, Area, and Line Arrangements 290

Point Patterns 290

Nearest Neighbor Analysis 291

Thiessen Polygons 293

Area Patterns 295

Distance and Adjacency 296

Other Polygonal Arrangement Measures 297

Linear Patterns 297

Line Densities 298

Nearest Neighbors and Line Intercepts 298

Direction and Circular Statistics 300

Connectivity of Linear Objects 303

Gravity Model 306

Routing and Allocation 307

Terms 309

Review Questions 310

References 311

Chapter 14 Map Overlay 313

Learning Objectives 313

The Cartographic Overlay 314

Point-In-Polygon and Line-In-Polygon Overlay 316

Polygon Overlays 318

Why Perform an Overlay? 318

Types of Map Overlay 319

Types of Vector Overlays 323

Graphical Overlay 324

Topological Vector Overlay 326

A Note about Error in Overlay 326

Dasymetric Mapping 328

Terms 330

Review Questions 331

References 331

Chapter 15 Cartographic Modeling 333

Learning Objectives 334

Model Components 334

The Cartographic Model 335

Types of Cartographic Models 337

Inductive and Deductive Modeling 339

Factor Selection 339

Model Flowcharting 340

Working Through the Model 342

Conflict Resolution 347

Sample Cartographic Models 348

Model Implementation 351

Model Verification 352

Terms 356

Review Questions 356

References 357

UNIT 5 GIS OUTPUT AND DESIGN 359

Chapter 16 Cartography and Visualization 361

Learning Objectives 361

Output: The Display of Analysis 362

Cartographic Output 363

Thematic Maps and Cartograms 364

Multivariate Display 369

Dynamic and Interactive Display 371

Web Mapping and Visualization 372

Virtual and Immersion Environments 374

Mapping the Temporal Dimension 374

Noncartographic Output 375

Tables and Charts 376

Design Considerations 377

Terms 380

Review Questions 380

References 381

Chapter 17 GIS Design 383

Learning Objectives 384

Application Design 385

Some General Systems Characteristics 387

Project Definition 388

Analytical Model Design 389

Components and Procedures 389

GIS Tools for Solving Problems 390

Selecting the Software 390

Scientific Models and GIS 390

Database Design 391

Modeling Tools 391

Establishing the Effective Spatial Domain of the Model 392

Study Area 393

Scale, Resolution, and Level of Detail 393

Classification 394

Coordinate System and Projection 394

Conceptual, Logical, and Physical Models 395

Institutional/System Design 395

GIS Information Products 396

How Information Products Drive the GIS 396

Organizing the Local Views 397

Avoiding Design Creep 398

View Integration 399

System Implementation 399

The Institutional Setting for GIS Operations 400

The System and the Outside World 400

Internal Players 401

External Players 402

Terms 403

Review Questions 403

References 404

Appendix A Software and Data Sources 405

Appendix B Using the World Wide Web to Find Data and GIS Examples 411

Glossary 413

Index 435

Photo Credits 443

• New introductory chapter, “Spatial Learner’s Permit” makes this text even more accessible to students without GIS backgrounds.
Explicit learning objectives at the beginning of each chapter detail precisely what students will be expected to know, allowing professors to create lesson plans and strategies to match.