# Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 7th Edition

# Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 7th Edition

ISBN: 978-0-470-50197-9

Apr 2011

1072 pages

## Description

*is the gold standard of heat transfer pedagogy for more than 30 years, with a commitment to continuous improvement by four authors having more than 150 years of combined experience in heat transfer education, research and practice. Using a rigorous and systematic problem-solving methodology pioneered by this text, it is abundantly filled with examples and problems that reveal the richness and beauty of the discipline. This edition maintains its foundation in the four central learning objectives for students and also makes heat and mass transfer more approachable with an additional emphasis on the fundamental concepts, as well as highlighting the relevance of those ideas with exciting applications to the most critical issues of today and the coming decades: energy and the environment. An updated version of Interactive Heat Transfer (IHT) software makes it even easier to efficiently and accurately solve problems.*

**Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 7th Edition**## Related Resources

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### Student

**CHAPTER** **1** *Introduction***1**

**1.1** What and How? 2

**1.2** Physical Origins and Rate Equations 3

**1.3** Relationship to Thermodynamics 12

**1.4** Units and Dimensions 36

**1.5** Analysis of Heat Transfer Problems: Methodology 38

**1.6** Relevance of Heat Transfer 41

**1.7** Summary 45

References 48

Problems 49

**CHAPTER** **2** *Introduction to Conduction***67**

**2.1** The Conduction Rate Equation 68

**2.2** The Thermal Properties of Matter 70

**2.3** The Heat Diffusion Equation 82

**2.4** Boundary and Initial Conditions 90

**2.5** Summary 94

References 95

Problems 95

**CHAPTER** **3** *One-Dimensional, Steady-State Conduction***111**

**3.1** The Plane Wall 112

**3.2** An Alternative Conduction Analysis 132

**3.3** Radial Systems 136

**3.4** Summary of One-Dimensional Conduction Results 142

**3.5** Conduction with Thermal Energy Generation 142

**3.6** Heat Transfer from Extended Surfaces 154

**3.7** The Bioheat Equation 178

**3.8** Thermoelectric Power Generation 182

**3.9** Micro- and Nanoscale Conduction 189

**3.10** Summary 190

References 193

Problems 193

**CHAPTER** **4** *Two-Dimensional, Steady-State Conduction***229**

**4.1** Alternative Approaches 230

**4.2** The Method of Separation of Variables 231

**4.3** The Conduction Shape Factor and the Dimensionless Conduction Heat Rate 235

**4.4** Finite-Difference Equations 241

**4.5** Solving the Finite-Difference Equations 250

**4.6** Summary 256

References 257

Problems 257

**CHAPTER** **5** *Transient Conduction***279**

**5.1** The Lumped Capacitance Method 280

**5.2** Validity of the Lumped Capacitance Method 283

**5.3** General Lumped Capacitance Analysis 287

**5.4** Spatial Effects 298

**5.5** The Plane Wall with Convection 299

**5.6** Radial Systems with Convection 303

**5.7** The Semi-Infinite Solid 310

**5.8** Objects with Constant Surface Temperatures or Surface Heat Fluxes 317

**5.9** Periodic Heating 327

**5.10** Finite-Difference Methods 330

**5.11** Summary 345

References 346

Problems 346

**CHAPTER** **6** *Introduction to Convection***377**

**6.1** The Convection Boundary Layers 378

**6.2** Local and Average Convection Coefficients 382

**6.3** Laminar and Turbulent Flow 389

**6.4** The Boundary Layer Equations 394

**6.5** Boundary Layer Similarity: The Normalized Boundary Layer Equations 398

**6.6** Physical Interpretation of the Dimensionless Parameters 407

**6.7** Boundary Layer Analogies 409

**6.8** Summary 417

References 418

Problems 419

**CHAPTER** **7** *External Flow***433**

**7.1** The Empirical Method 435

**7.2** The Flat Plate in Parallel Flow 436

**7.3** Methodology for a Convection Calculation 447

**7.4** The Cylinder in Cross Flow 455

**7.5** The Sphere 465

**7.6** Flow Across Banks of Tubes 468

**7.7** Impinging Jets 477

**7.8** Packed Beds 482

**7.9** Summary 483

References 486

Problems 486

**CHAPTER** **8** *Internal Flow***517**

**8.1** Hydrodynamic Considerations 518

**8.2** Thermal Considerations 523

**8.3** The Energy Balance 529

**8.4** Laminar Flow in Circular Tubes: Thermal Analysis and Convection Correlations 537

**8.5** Convection Correlations: Turbulent Flow in Circular Tubes 544

**8.6** Convection Correlations: Noncircular Tubes and the Concentric Tube Annulus 552

**8.7** Heat Transfer Enhancement 555

**8.8** Flow in Small Channels 558

**8.9** Convection Mass Transfer 563

**8.10** Summary 565

References 568

Problems 569

**CHAPTER** **9** *Free Convection***593**

**9.1** Physical Considerations 594

**9.2** The Governing Equations for Laminar Boundary Layers 597

**9.3** Similarity Considerations 598

**9.4** Laminar Free Convection on a Vertical Surface 599

**9.5** The Effects of Turbulence 602

**9.6** Empirical Correlations: External Free Convection Flows 604

**9.7** Free Convection Within Parallel Plate Channels 618

**9.8** Empirical Correlations: Enclosures 621

**9.9** Combined Free and Forced Convection 627

**9.10** Convection Mass Transfer 628

**9.11** Summary 629

References 630

Problems 631

**CHAPTER** **10** *Boiling and Condensation***653**

**10.1** Dimensionless Parameters in Boiling and Condensation 654

**10.2** Boiling Modes 655

**10.3** Pool Boiling 656

**10.4** Pool Boiling Correlations 660

**10.5** Forced Convection Boiling 669

**10.6** Condensation: Physical Mechanisms 673

**10.7** Laminar Film Condensation on a Vertical Plate 675

**10.8** Turbulent Film Condensation 679

**10.9** Film Condensation on Radial Systems 684

**10.10** Condensation in Horizontal Tubes 689

**10.11** Dropwise Condensation 690

**10.12** Summary 691

References 691

Problems 693

**CHAPTER** **11** *Heat Exchangers***705**

**11.1** Heat Exchanger Types 706

**11.2** The Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient 708

**11.3** Heat Exchanger Analysis: Use of the Log Mean Temperature Difference 711

**11.4** Heat Exchanger Analysis: The Effectiveness–NTU Method 722

**11.5** Heat Exchanger Design and Performance Calculations 730

**11.6** Additional Considerations 739

**11.7** Summary 747

References 748

Problems 748

**CHAPTER** **12** *Radiation: Processes and Properties***767**

**12.1** Fundamental Concepts 768

**12.2** Radiation Heat Fluxes 771

**12.3** Radiation Intensity 773

**12.4** Blackbody Radiation 782

**12.5** Emission from Real Surfaces 792

**12.6** Absorption, Reflection, and Transmission by Real Surfaces 801

**12.7** Kirchhoff’s Law 810

**12.8** The Gray Surface 812

**12.9** Environmental Radiation 818

**12.10** Summary 826

References 830

Problems 830

**CHAPTER** **13** *Radiation Exchange Between Surfaces***861**

**13.1** The View Factor 862

**13.2** Blackbody Radiation Exchange 872

**13.3** Radiation Exchange Between Opaque, Diffuse, Gray Surfaces in an Enclosure 876

**13.4** Multimode Heat Transfer 893

**13.5** Implications of the Simplifying Assumptions 896

**13.6** Radiation Exchange with Participating Media 896

**13.7** Summary 901

References 902

Problems 903

**CHAPTER** **14** *Diffusion Mass Transfer***933**

**14.1** Physical Origins and Rate Equations 934

**14.2** Mass Transfer in Nonstationary Media 939

**14.3** The Stationary Medium Approximation 947

**14.4** Conservation of Species for a Stationary Medium 947

**14.5** Boundary Conditions and Discontinuous Concentrations at Interfaces 954

**14.6** Mass Diffusion with Homogeneous Chemical Reactions 962

**14.7** Transient Diffusion 965

**14.8** Summary 971

References 972

Problems 972

**APPENDIX** **A** *Thermophysical Properties of Matter***981**

**APPENDIX** **B** *Mathematical Relations and Functions***1013**

**APPENDIX** **C** *Thermal Conditions Associated with Uniform Energy*

*Generation in One-Dimensional, Steady-State Systems***1019**

**APPENDIX** **D** *The Gauss–Seidel Method***1025**

**APPENDIX** **E** *The Convection Transfer Equations***1027**

**APPENDIX** **F** *Boundary Layer Equations for Turbulent Flow***1031**

**APPENDIX** **G** *An Integral Laminar Boundary Layer Solution for Parallel Flow over a Flat Plate***1035**

*Index***1039**

- Richness of the problems and examples – numerous contemporary applications have been added, especially in the area of ‘energy and the environment,’ including topics such as solar energy systems, renewable energy systems, and new manufacturing processes
- Additional coverage of environmental issues, included an updated and augmented section on environmental radiation (12.9)
- As appropriate, the topic of thermodynamics has been augmented and carefully blended throughout the text, allowing readers to build upon those concepts and skills.
- Additional focus on and tailoring coverage down to the core fundamental concepts, while clearly indicating content that is either optional and/or more appropriate for a second course
- Modernization and streamlining of the convection correlations helps students focus on the most useful correlations instead of getting lost or confused by the vast quantity of correlations
- New version of Interactive Heat Transfer software – new Quickstart companion, new navigation that makes it easier
- New version of Interactive Heat Transfer software – Problems involving complex models and/or exploratory, what-if, and parameter sensitivity considerations can efficiently and accurately be addressed using a computational equation-solving package. IHT has been designed for that specific purpose, and this new version provides a new Quickstart companion guide as well as a new, easier to use navigation scheme

- The definitive text on Heat and Mass Transfer, this book continues to be built around the four central learning objectives, including:
- The reader should internalize the meaning of the terminology and physical principles associated with heat transfer.
- The reader should be able to delineate pertinent transport phenomena for any process or system involving heat transfer.
- The reader should be able to use requisite inputs for computing heat transfer rates and/or material temperatures.
- The reader should be able to develop representative models of real processes and systems and draw conclusions concerning process/system design or performance from the attendant analysis.

- Teaches students the rigorous and systematic problem-solving methodology developed and honed by the Incropera author team
- A wealth of example problems to better show how to apply the material across various engineering disciplines and fields
- Identifies problems that are uniquely suited for solving with a computational software tool, both to increase efficiency and to decrease errors