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Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices



Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices

Shin-Tson Wu, Deng-Ke Yang

ISBN: 978-0-470-03202-2 August 2006 394 Pages



From laptop computers and mobile phones to digital cinema, Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs) are integral components in an increasing array of highly desirable consumer electronics and communication devices, and are already the predominant technology used in flat panel displays. 

This inter-disciplinary book is intended as an introductory guide to the fundamental properties of liquid crystals and their applications in display and photonic devices, providing a basic understanding of the physics, optics, electro-optics, and material aspects for state-of-the-art display and photonic devices.

Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices includes:

  • A comprehensive overview of LCDs including liquid crystal physics, electro-optical properties, simulation techniques and display and photonic applications.
  • Numerous examples and case studies, solved problems and challenging homework conundrums starting with basic physics and gradually introducing advanced device concepts and structures.
  • The principles for designing advanced specialist transmissive, reflective, and transflective liquid crystal displays.
  • Chapters on emerging technologies such as tuneable liquid crystal photonic devices including laser beam steering, light switches for telecommunication and tunable-focus lenses.

Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices is a valuable resource for advanced undergraduate and graduate students following display systems courses, who will benefit from its systematic approach. The introduction of advanced device concepts and structures means that display engineers, scientists, and technicians active in the field can also utilise this unique resource, as can developers of a wide range of systems and applications.

The Society for Information Display (SID) is an international society, which has the aim of encouraging the development of all aspects of the field of information display. Complementary to the aims of the society, the Wiley-SID series is intended to explain the latest developments in information display technology at a professional level. The broad scope of the series addresses all facets of information displays from technical aspects through systems and prototypes to standards and ergonomics


Series Editor’s Foreword.


1. Liquid crystal physics.

  1. Introduction.
  2. Thermodynamics and statistic physics.
  3. Orientational order.
  4. Elastic properties of liquid crystals.
  5. Response of liquid crystals to electro-magnetic fields.
  6. Anchoring effects of nematic liquid crystal at surfaces.

2. Propagation of light in anisotropic optical medium.

  1. Electromagnetic wave.
  2. Polarization.
  3. Propagation of light in uniform anisotropic optical media.
  4. Propagation of light in cholesteric liquid crystals.

3. Optical modeling methods.

  1. Jones matrix method.
  2. Mueller matrix method.
  3. Berreman 4x4 method.

4. Effects of Electric field on Liquid Crystals.

  1. Dielectric interaction.
  2. Flexoelectric Effect.
  3. Ferroelectricity in liquid crystals.

5. Freedericksz transition.

  1. Calculus of variation.
  2. The Fredeericksz transition: statics.
  3. The Freedericksz transition: dynamics.

6. Liquid Crystal Materials.

  1. Introduction.
  2. Refractive indices.
  3. Dielectric constants.
  4. Rotational Viscosity.
  5. Elastic constant.
  6. Figure-of-merits.
  7. Refractive index matching between liquid crystals and polymers.

7. Modeling of liquid crystal director configuration.

  1. Electric energy of liquid crystals.
  2. Modeling electric field.
  3. Simulation of liquid crystal director configuration.

8. Transmissive liquid crystal display.

  1. Introduction.
  2. Twisted nematic cells.
  3. In plane switching (IPS) mode.
  4. Vertical alignment (VA) mode.
  5. Multi-domain Vertical Alignment (MVA) Cells.
  6. Optically compensated bend (OCB) cell.

9. Reflective and Trasreflective display.

  1. Introduction.
  2. Reflective liquid crystal displays.
  3. Transflector.
  4. Classification of Transflective LCDs.
  5. Dual-cell-gap Transflective LCDs.
  6. Single-cell-gap Transflective LCDs.
  7. Performance of transflective LCDs.

10. Liquid crystal display matrices, drive schemes and bistable displays.

  1. Segmented displays.
  2. Passive matrix displays and drive scheme.
  3. Active Matrix Displays.
  4. Bistable ferroelectric liquid crystal displays and drive scheme.
  5. Bistable nematic displays.
  6. Bistable cholesteric reflective display.

11. Liquid crystal/polymer composites.

  1. Introduction.
  2. Phase separation.
  3. Scattering properties of liquid crystal/polymer composites.
  4. Polymer dispersed liquid crystals.
  5. Polymer stabilization liquid crystals.
  6. Displays from liquid crystal/polymer composites.

12. Tunable liquid crystal photonic devices.

  1. Introduction.
  2. Laser beam steering.
  3. Variable Optical Attenuators.
  4. Tunable-Focus Lens.
  5. Polarization-Independent LC Devices.