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Fundamentals of Microwave Photonics

Fundamentals of Microwave Photonics

V. J. Urick, Keith J. Williams, Jason D. McKinney

ISBN: 978-1-119-02980-9

Feb 2015

488 pages

$108.99

Description

A comprehensive resource to designing and constructing analog photonic links capable of high RF performance

Fundamentals of Microwave Photonics provides a comprehensive description of analog optical links from basic principles to applications.  The book is organized into four parts. The first begins with a historical perspective of microwave photonics, listing the advantages of fiber optic links and delineating analog vs. digital links. The second section covers basic principles associated with microwave photonics in both the RF and optical domains.  The third focuses on analog modulation formats—starting with a concept, deriving the RF performance metrics from basic physical models, and then analyzing issues specific to each format. The final part examines applications of microwave photonics, including analog receive-mode systems, high-power photodiodes applications, radio astronomy, and arbitrary waveform generation.

  • Covers fundamental concepts including basic treatments of noise, sources of distortion and propagation effects
  • Provides design equations in easy-to-use forms as quick reference
  • Examines analog photonic link architectures along with their application to RF systems
A thorough treatment of microwave photonics, Fundamentals of Microwave Photonics will be an essential resource in the laboratory, field, or during design meetings.

The authors have more than 55 years of combined professional experience in microwave photonics and have published more than 250 associated works.

Preface xi

Acknowledgments xiii

1 introduction 1

1.1 Enabling Technological Advances and Benefits of Fiber Optic Links 6

1.2 Analog Versus Digital Fiber Optic Links 13

1.3 Basic Fiber Optic Components 18

1.4 Analog LinksWithin RF Systems 27

References 28

2 Analog Performance Metrics 33

2.1 The Scattering Matrix 34

2.2 Noise Figure 36

2.3 Dynamic Range 39

2.3.1 Compression Dynamic Range 39

2.3.2 Spurious-Free Dynamic Range 43

2.4 Cascade Analysis 52

References 54

3 Sources of Noise in Fiber Optic Links 57

3.1 Basic Concepts 58

3.2 Thermal Noise 62

3.3 Shot Noise 69

3.4 Lasers 74

3.5 Optical Amplifiers 93

3.5.1 Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers 94

3.5.2 Raman and Brillouin Fiber Amplifiers 108

3.5.3 Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers 112

3.6 Photodetection 113

References 117

4 Distortion in Fiber Optic Links 124

4.1 Introduction 124

4.2 Distortion in Electrical-to-Optical Conversion 130

4.3 Optical Amplifier Distortion 134

4.4 Photodetector Distortion 138

4.4.1 Photodetector Distortion Measurement Systems 141

4.4.2 Photodetector Nonlinear Mechanisms 144

References 161

5 Propagation Effects 166

5.1 Introduction 166

5.2 Double Rayleigh Scattering 168

5.3 RF Phase in Fiber Optic Links 170

5.4 Chromatic Dispersion 173

5.5 Stimulated Brillouin Scattering 184

5.6 Stimulated Raman Scattering 190

5.7 Cross-Phase Modulation 193

5.8 Four-Wave Mixing 198

5.9 Polarization Effects 200

References 205

6 External Intensity Modulation with Direct Detection 212

6.1 Concept and Link Architectures 213

6.2 Signal Transfer and Gain 216

6.3 Noise and Performance Metrics 233

6.3.1 General Equations 234

6.3.2 Shot-Noise-Limited Equations 242

6.3.3 RIN-Limited Equations 247

6.3.4 Trade Space Analysis 250

6.4 Photodetector Issues and Solutions 251

6.5 Linearization Techniques 260

6.6 Propagation Effects 264

References 270

7 External Phase Modulation with Interferometric Detection 273

7.1 Introduction 273

7.2 Signal Transfer and Gain 275

7.3 Noise and Performance Metrics 287

7.4 Linearization Techniques 295

7.5 Propagation Effects 299

7.6 Other Techniques for Optical Phase Demodulation 304

References 308

8 Other Analog Optical Modulation Methods 312

8.1 Direct Laser Modulation 313

8.1.1 Direct Intensity Modulation 314

8.1.2 Direct Frequency Modulation 319

8.2 Suppressed Carrier Modulation with a Low Biased MZM 321

8.3 Single-Sideband Modulation 328

8.4 Sampled Analog Optical Links 330

8.4.1 RF Downconversion Via Sampled Analog

Optical Links 333

8.4.2 Mitigation of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering with Sampled Links 336

8.5 Polarization Modulation 340

References 344

9 High Current Photodetectors 351

9.1 Photodetector Compression 352

9.2 Effects Due to Finite Series Resistance 355

9.3 Thermal Limitations 359

9.4 Space-Charge Effects 365

9.5 Photodetector Power Conversion Efficiency 370

9.6 State of the Art for Power Photodetectors 376

References 378

10 Applications and Trends 383

10.1 Point-to-Point Links 384

10.2 Analog Fiber Optic Delay Lines 393

10.3 Photonic-Based RF Signal Processing 398

10.3.1 Wideband Channelization 399

10.3.2 Instantaneous Frequency Measurement 401

10.3.3 Downconversion 404

10.3.4 Phased-Array Beamforming 405

10.4 Photonic Methods for RF Signal Generation 407

10.5 Millimeter-Wave Photonics 415

10.6 Integrated Microwave Photonics 419

References 427

Appendix I Units and Physical Constants 446

Appendix II Electromagnetic Radiation 450

Appendix III Power, Voltage and Current for a Sinusoid 453

Appendix IV Trigonometric Functions 455

Appendix V Fourier Transforms 458

Appendix VI Bessel Functions 460

Index 463