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Fundamentals of Public Safety Networks and Critical Communications Systems: Technologies, Deployment, and Management

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Fundamentals of Public Safety Networks and Critical Communications Systems: Technologies, Deployment, and Management

Mehmet Ulema

ISBN: 978-1-119-36954-7 November 2018 Wiley-IEEE Press 320 Pages

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Description

A timely overview of a complete spectrum of technologies specifically designed for public safety communications as well as their deployment as management 

In our increasingly disaster-prone world, the need to upgrade and better coordinate our public safety networks combined with successful communications is more critical than ever. Fundamentals of Public Safety Networks and Critical Communications Systems fills a gap in the literature by providing a book that reviews a comprehensive set of technologies, from most popular to the most advanced communications technologies that can be applied to public safety networks and mission-critical communications systems. The book explores the technical and economic feasibility, design, application, and sustainable operation management of these vital networks and systems.

Written by a noted expert in the field, the book provides extensive coverage of systems, services, end-user devices, and applications of public-safety services and technologies. The author explores the potential for advanced public safety systems, and this comprehensive text covers all aspects of the public safety and critical communications network field. This important book:

  • Provides an introduction to and discussion of the common characteristics of our critical communications systems
  • Presents a review of narrowband technologies such as Project 25, TETRA, and DMR as well as the broadband technologies such as the LTE technology
  • Focuses on the emerging technologies that can be adopted to improve our vital communications systems
  • Discusses deployment of such technologies, including economics and finance, planning and project management
  • Provides, in detail, the issues and solutions related to the management of such communications networks
  • Offers a complete list of standards documents

Written for professionals in the industry, academics, and government and regulatory agencies, Fundamentals of Public Safety Networks and Critical Communications Systems offers a review of the most significant safety technologies, explores the application for advanced technologies, and examines the most current research. 

Foreword by Alan Kaplan xv

Foreword by Hussein Mouftah xvii

Preface xix

Acknowledgments xxiii

List of Abbreviations xxv

About the Author xxxv

1 OVERVIEW 1

1.1 Background 1

1.2 Technologies Used in Critical Communications 4

1.2.1 Narrowband Land and Private Mobile Radio Systems 4

1.2.2 Broadband Technologies for Critical Communications 6

1.2.3 Interoperability 9

1.3 Applications, Systems, and End-User Devices 11

1.3.1 Applications and Systems 11

1.3.2 End-User Terminals and Consoles 13

1.4 Standards, Policies, and Spectrum 15

1.4.1 Frequency Spectrum for Critical Communications 15

1.4.2 Standards Development in Critical Communications 16

1.5 Planning, Design, Deployment, and Operational Aspects 18

1.5.1 Planning 18

1.5.2 Technology Considerations for a Critical Communications System 19

1.5.3 Economic and Financial Considerations 20

1.5.4 Paving the Way 21

1.5.5 Design and Deployment 22

1.5.6 Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning (a.k.a. Management) 24

1.6 Summary and Conclusions 25

References 27

2 USERS OF CRITICAL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS 33

2.1 Introduction 33

2.2 Organizations Involved in Public Safety 34

2.2.1 Police Departments 34

2.2.2 Fire Departments 35

2.2.3 Emergency Medical Services 36

2.2.4 Emergency Management Agencies 37

2.2.5 Coast Guard 37

2.2.6 Other Organizations in Public Safety 38

2.3 Other Sectors using Critical Communications Systems 39

2.3.1 Transportation 40

2.3.2 Utilities 40

2.3.3 Others 41

2.4 Summary and Conclusions 42

References 42

3 CHARACTERISTICS OF CRITICAL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS 45

3.1 Introduction 45

3.2 Features Common to Both Critical Communications Systems and Other Wireless Networks 47

3.3 Features Unique to Critical Communications Systems 50

3.4 Importance of Interoperability Features 52

3.5 Summary and Conclusions 53

References 54

4 INTRODUCTION TO TECHNOLOGIES AND STANDARDS FOR CRITICAL COMMUNICATIONS 55

4.1 Introduction 55

4.2 Analog Systems—Historical Perspective 58

4.3 Narrowband Land and Private Mobile Radio Systems 59

4.4 Limitations of Narrowband PMR/LMR Systems 60

4.5 Broadband Technologies 60

4.6 Other Technologies 61

4.7 Summary and Conclusions 63

References 63

5 PROJECT 25 (P25) 65

5.1 Introduction 65

5.2 Architecture 68

5.3 Interfaces 71

5.3.1 Air Interfaces 72

5.3.2 Wireline Interfaces 73

5.3.3 Data Interfaces 74

5.3.4 Security Interfaces 75

5.4 Services 75

5.5 Operations 76

5.6 Security 77

5.7 RF Spectrum 77

5.8 Standardization 78

5.9 Deployment 80

5.10 Future 81

5.11 Summary and Conclusions 84

References 85

6 TERRESTRIAL TRUNKED RADIO (TETRA) 87

6.1 Introduction 87

6.2 Architecture 88

6.3 Interfaces 90

6.3.1 Air Interfaces 90

6.3.2 Intersystem Interface 92

6.3.3 Terminal Equipment Interface (TEI) 93

6.3.4 Line Station (Dispatcher) Interface 94

6.3.5 Network Management Interface 94

6.3.6 PSTN/ISDN/PDN 94

6.4 Services 95

6.4.1 Basic Voice Services 95

6.4.2 Supplementary Services 96

6.4.3 Data Services 97

6.5 Operations 97

6.6 Security 98

6.7 Spectrum 98

6.8 Standardization 99

6.9 Deployment 100

6.9.1 Cost Factors Impacting TETRA Wireless Systems 100

6.10 Future 104

6.11 Summary and Conclusions 105

References 105

7 DIGITAL MOBILE RADIO (DMR) 107

7.1 Introduction 107

7.2 Architecture 109

7.3 Interfaces 111

7.3.1 DMR Air Interface (AI) 112

7.3.2 Trunking Interface 113

7.3.3 Data Application Interface 113

7.4 Services 113

7.4.1 Voice Services 114

7.4.2 Data Services 115

7.5 Operations 116

7.6 Security 116

7.7 Spectrum 117

7.8 Standardization 117

7.9 Deployment 118

7.10 Future 119

7.11 Summary and Conclusions 119

References 120

8 LONG-TERM EVOLUTION (LTE) 121

8.1 Introduction 122

8.2 Architecture 125

8.2.1 E-UTRAN 125

8.2.2 Evolved Packet Core (EPC) 127

8.3 Interfaces 128

8.3.1 Air Interface 129

8.3.2 E-UTRAN Network Interfaces 129

8.3.3 EPC Interfaces 130

8.3.4 Interworking Interfaces 131

8.4 Services 132

8.5 Operations 133

8.6 Security 134

8.7 Spectrum 135

8.8 Standardization 136

8.9 Future 138

8.10 Deployment 138

8.11 Use of LTE as a Critical Communications Network 139

8.12 Summary and Conclusions 142

References 143

9 FUTURE TECHNOLOGIES FOR CRITICAL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS 145

9.1 Introduction 145

9.2 5G and Beyond 146

9.3 Augmented Reality (AR) 150

9.4 Internet of Things (IoT) 151

9.5 Big Data Analytics 152

9.6 Summary and Conclusions 153

References 154

10 SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS USED IN CRITICAL COMMUNICATIONS 157

10.1 Introduction 157

10.2 Command and Control Centers 158

10.3 Emergency Response Systems 158

10.4 Incident Management System 160

10.5 Public Warning Systems 161

10.6 Others 162

10.7 Summary and Conclusions 163

References 163

11 END-USER DEVICES CONNECTED TO CRITICAL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS 165

11.1 Introduction 165

11.2 Mobile Radios 166

11.3 Portable Radios 167

11.4 Dispatch Consoles 170

11.5 Others 171

11.6 Summary and Conclusions 172

References 172

12 PLANNING FOR DEPLOYMENT AND OPERATIONS OF CRITICAL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS 175

12.1 Introduction 175

12.2 Developing Policies 176

12.2.1 National Broadband Policy 177

12.2.2 Governance Policy 177

12.2.3 Spectrum Management Policy 178

12.3 Developing a Business Case 180

12.3.1 Identifying Alternatives 181

12.3.2 Feasibility Studies 184

12.3.3 Interoperability Concerns 185

12.3.4 Comparison of Alternatives and the Recommendation 188

12.4 Developing Project Plans 190

12.5 Summary and Conclusions 192

References 193

13 ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR DEPLOYING CRITICAL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS 195

13.1 Introduction 195

13.2 Cost and Benefit of Deploying and Operating a Public Safety Network 196

13.2.1 Cost of Deploying and Operating a Public Safety Network 196

13.2.2 Benefits of Deploying and Operating a Public Safety Network 198

13.3 Financing Alternatives 199

13.3.1 Bond Financing 199

13.3.2 Lease Financing 200

13.3.3 Financing via Sharing the Network 200

13.4 Evaluation of Financing Alternatives 201

13.5 Summary and Conclusions 202

References 203

14 DESIGNING, IMPLEMENTATION, AND INTEGRATION 205

14.1 Introduction 205

14.2 Network Architecture and Design 205

14.2.1 Designing Narrowband Technologies Based Network 206

14.2.2 Designing a Broadband Technology Based Network 208

14.3 Implementation and Installation 213

14.4 System Integration, Verification, and Validation Testing 214

14.5 Summary and Conclusions 215

References 215

15 OPERATIONS, ADMINISTRATION, AND MAINTENANCE OF CRITICAL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS 217

15.1 Introduction 217

15.2 Developing Operations Plans 220

15.3 Operation Support Systems (OSSs), Tools, and Applications 221

15.3.1 Many Types of OSSs: Layered Organization 222

15.3.2 Interfaces among OSSs 223

15.3.3 OSSs Supporting Network Management Functions 223

15.3.4 Tools and Applications Supporting Operations 224

15.3.5 OSSs Supporting Network Technologies 225

15.4 Operations Support Centers, Policies, Guidelines, and Procedures 226

15.4.1 Centers, People, Administration 228

15.4.2 Configuration Management Related Procedures 230

15.4.3 Fault Management Related Procedures 232

15.4.4 Performance Management Related Procedures 233

15.4.5 Accounting Management Related Procedures 234

15.4.6 Security Management Related Procedures 235

15.5 Summary and Conclusions 236

References 237

16 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 239

16.1 Major Points and Observations 239

16.2 Challenges in Deploying Critical Communications Systems 241

A PROJECT 25 DOCUMENTS 243

B TETRA DOCUMENTS BY ETSI 249

C LTE CRITICAL COMMUNICATIONS RELATED DOCUMENTS 265

Index 273