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Gas Hydrates 2: Geoscience Issues and Potential Industrial Applications

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Gas Hydrates 2: Geoscience Issues and Potential Industrial Applications

Livio Ruffine (Editor), Daniel Broseta (Editor), Arnaud Desmedt (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-52247-8 April 2018 Wiley-ISTE 382 Pages

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Description

Gas hydrates in their natural environment and for potential industrial applications (Volume 2).

Preface xi
Livio RUFFINE, Daniel BROSETA and Arnaud DESMEDT

Part 1 Field study and laboratory experiments of hydrate-bearing sediments 1

Introduction to Part 1 3
Livio RUFFINE

Chapter 1 Water Column Acoustics:Remote Detection of Gas Seeps 11
Carla SCALABRIN and Stéphanie DUPRÉ

1.1 Introduction 11

1.2 Principle of the measurement 14

1.2.1 Instrumentations 14

1.2.2 Qualitative and quantitative measurements 14

1.3 Bibliography 18

Chapter 2 Geophysical Approach 21
Bruno MARSSET

2.1 Introduction 21

2.2 Overview 21

2.3 Seismic processing 23

2.3.1 Positioning phase 23

2.3.2 Preprocessing phase 24

2.3.3 Processing phase 25

2.4 Example of gas hydrate exploration: the SYSIF instrument 28

2.5 Bibliography 29

Chapter 3 Hydrate Seismic Detection 31
Stephan KER

3.1 Wave velocities of hydrate-bearing sediments 32

3.1.1 Empirical equations 32

3.1.2 Effective medium theories 33

3.2 Bibliography 34

Chapter 4 Geomorphology of Gas Hydrate-Bearing Pockmark 37
Vincent RIBOULOT

4.1 Introduction 37

4.2 Generalities about pockmarks 38

4.3 Impact of gas hydrate on seafloor deformation 39

4.4 Morphological evolution of gas hydrate pockmarks 42

4.5 Distinction between gas hydrate-bearing and gas hydrate-free pockmarks 44

4.6 Bibliography 45

Chapter 5 Geotechnics 49
Sébastien GARZIGLIA

5.1 Introduction 49

5.2 The Penfeld system 50

5.2.1 Piezocone and acoustic soundings in gas hydrate-bearing sediments 52

5.3 Bibliography 54

Chapter 6 Geochemistry 57
Livio RUFFINE, Sandrine CHÉRON, Emmanuel PONZEVERA, Christophe BRANDILY,Patrice WOERTHER, Vivien GUYADER, Audrey BOISSIER, Jean-Pierre DONVAL and Germain BAYON

6.1 Introduction 57

6.2 Sampling geological materials from hydrate-bearing sediment 58

6.2.1 The Calypso corer 58

6.2.2 Sampling of sediments, carbonates and pore fluids from the Calypso corer 62

6.3 Analyses 65

6.3.1 Sediment and carbonate 65

6.3.2 Gases 75

6.3.3 Pore water 78

6.4 Bibliography 82

Chapter 7 Benthic Ecosystem Study 85
Karine OLU, Laurent TOFFIN and Christophe BRANDILY

7.1 Microbial ecology in hydrate-bearing sediments 85

7.1.1 Study sites containing hydrate-bearing sediments 85

7.1.2 Sampling strategy for microbiology study of hydrate-bearing sediments 86

7.1.3 Laboratory analyses 87

7.2 Macrobial ecology studies at cold seeps 91

7.2.1 Mapping biogenic habitats 93

7.2.2 Chemical characterization of biogenic habitats 97

7.2.3 Sampling in biogenic habitats 103

7.2.4 Fauna 106

7.2.5 Symbiosis studies 110

7.3 Bibliography 111

Chapter 8 Physicochemical Properties of Gas Hydrate-bearing Sediments 121
Ludovic LEGOIX, Elke KOSSEL, Christian DEUSNER, Livio RUFFINE and Matthias HAECKEL

8.1 Introduction 121

8.2 Gas hydrate formation and dissociation 124

8.3 Fluid transport in gas hydrate-bearing sediments 128

8.4 Thermal and electrical properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediments 133

8.5 Distribution and occurrence of gas hydrates in sediments 137

8.6 Experimental investigation of dynamic processes in gas hydrate-bearing sediments 139

8.7 Bibliography 149

Chapter 9 Small-scale Laboratory Studies of Key Geotechnical Properties which are Not Possible to Measure from In Situ Deployed Technologies 165
Sébastien GARZIGLIA

9.1 Introduction 165

9.2 Influence of gas hydrates on the stiffness and strength properties of sediments 166

9.2.1 Elastic or small-strain stiffness properties 166

9.2.2 Large-strain stiffness and strength properties 168

9.2.3 Geotechnical consequences of gas hydrate destabilization 170

9.3 Bibliography 172

Part 2 Modeling of Gas Hydrate-bearing Sediments and Case Studies 177

Chapter 10 Geomechanical Aspects 179
Assaf KLAR and Shun UCHIDA

10.1 Introduction 179

10.2 Geomechanical characteristics 179

10.3 Constitutive models for continuum mechanics frameworks 181

10.3.1 Stress–strain formulation for hydrate-bearing sediments 183

10.3.2 DEM representation 191

10.4 Coupled formulation 195

10.5 Numerical simulations of the Nankai 2013 gas production test 202

10.5.1 The Nankai gas production test overview 202

10.5.2 Modeling procedure 203

10.5.3 History matching of the 2013 Nankai production test 210

10.5.4 Thermo–hydro–mechanical studies during the 2013 Nankai gas production test 211

10.6 Concluding remarks 213

10.7 Bibliography 214

Chapter 11 Geochemical Aspects 219
Wei-Li HONG and Malgorzata PESZYNSKA

11.1 Introduction 219

11.2 Basic principles 220

11.2.1 Transport in the aqueous phase by advection and diffusion 220

11.2.2 Numerical scheme for the advection–diffusion problem 222

11.2.3 Transport of methane in aqueous phase in the presence of gas hydrate phase 223

11.2.4 Transport of methane and salt species, with hydrate presence 225

11.3 Model framework 226

11.4 Model validation and sensitivity tests 230

11.5 Model application 230

11.6 Concluding remarks 239

11.7 Acknowledgments 239

11.8 Bibliography 239

Part 3 Geoscience and Industrial Applications 243

Chapter 12 Biogeochemical Dynamics of the Giant Pockmark Regab 245
Alexis DE PRUNELÉ, Karine OLU, Livio RUFFINE, Hélène ONDRÉAS,Jean-Claude CAPRAIS, Germain BAYON, Anne-Sophie ALIX, Julie Le BRUCHEC and Louis GÉLI

12.1 Introduction 245

12.2 Location of the pockmark 246

12.2.1 The pockmark Regab: hydrocarbon emission and morphology 247

12.3 Megafauna distribution on Regab pockmark in relation to fluid chemistry 250

12.3.1 Megafauna distribution on the Regab pockmark 250

12.3.2 Mytilid habitats 252

12.3.3 Bacterial mat habitat 255

12.3.4 Vesicomyid habitats 258

12.4 General conclusion on the megafauna distribution on the Regab pockmark in relation to fluid chemistry 263

12.5 Bibliography 264

Chapter 13 Roles of Gas Hydrates for CO2 Geological Storage Purposes 267
André BURNOL

13.1 Introduction 267

13.2 Hydrate trapping of CO2 in subsurfaces (onshore, offshore and deep offshore cases) 269

13.2.1 Case of migration of CO2 within the overburden 269

13.2.2 Case of natural gas hydrates exploitation using CO2 injection 270

13.2.3 Role of mixed gas hydrates in the “deep offshore” CO2 storage option 272

13.3 CO2 deep offshore storage capacity in the French and Spanish EEZs 276

13.4 Summary and prospects 281

13.5 Bibliography 281

Chapter 14 Hydrate-Based Removal of CO2 from CH4 + CO2 Gas Streams 285
Daniel BROSETA, Christophe DICHARRY and Jean-Philippe TORRÉ

14.1 Introduction 285

14.2 Laboratory experiments of gas capture and separation by means of gas hydrates 290

14.2.1 Batch experiments 292

14.2.2 Semibatch experiments 295

14.2.3 Continuous separation experiments 295

14.3 Metrics of CO2 separation 295

14.4 Results from experiments of CO2 removal from CO2/CH4 gas mixtures 300

14.4.1 Pure water and water with surfactant additives 300

14.4.2 THF and other sII hydrate-forming additives 301

14.4.3 TBAB, TBPB and other semiclathrate-forming additives 303

14.5 Routes to enhance the removal of CO2 from CO2/CH4 gas mixtures 307

14.6 Concluding remarks 309

14.7 Bibliography 309

Chapter 15 Use of Hydrates for Cold Storage and Distribution in Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Applications 315
Anthony DELAHAYE, Laurence FOURNAISON and Didier DALMAZZONE

15.1 Introduction 315

15.2 Hydrate systems for cool storage and distribution 317

15.2.1 Refrigerant gas hydrate applied to cool storage 317

15.2.2 CO2 hydrates applied to cool storage and distribution 318

15.2.3 Quaternary salt hydrates for cool storage and distribution 319

15.2.4 Other hydrates applied to cool storage and distribution 320

15.3 Criteria for use of hydrates in refrigeration 321

15.3.1 Thermodynamic criterion 322

15.3.2 Flow criterion 325

15.3.3 Thermal criterion 331

15.3.4 Kinetic criterion 332

15.3.5 Energy criterion 334

15.4 Hydrate applications in refrigeration and air conditioning 335

15.4.1 Slurry generation methods 335

15.4.2 Examples of hydrate-based refrigeration systems 336

15.5 Conclusion 341

15.6 Bibliography 342

List of Authors 359

Index 363