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Gas Insulated Substations

Description

Comprehensive reference covering all aspects of gas insulated substations including basic principles, technology, use & application, design, specification, testing and ownership issues

This book provides an overview on the particular development steps of gas insulated high-voltage switchgear, and is based on the information given with the editor’s tutorial. The theory is kept low only as much as it is needed to understand gas insulated technology, with the main focus of the book being on delivering practical application knowledge. It discusses some introductory and advanced aspects in the meaning of applications.

The start of the book presents the theory of Gas Insulated Technology, and outlines reliability, design, safety, grounding and bonding, and factors for choosing GIS. The third chapter presents the technology, covering the following in detail: manufacturing, specification, instrument transformers, Gas Insulated Bus, and the assembly process. Next, the book goes into control and monitoring, which covers local control cabinet, bay controller, control schemes, and digital communication. Testing is explained in the middle of the book before installation and energization. Importantly, operation and maintenance is discussed. This chapter includes information on repair, extensions, retrofit or upgrade, and overloading. Finally applications are covered along with concepts of layout, typical layouts, mixed technology substations, and then other topics such as life cycle assessment, environmental impact, and project management.  

  • A one-stop, complete reference text on gas insulated substations (GIS), large-capacity and long-distance electricity transmission, which are of increasing importance in the power industry today
  • Details advanced and basic material, accessible for both existing GIS users and those planning to adopt the technology
  • Discusses both the practical and theoretical aspects of GIS
  • Written by acknowledged GIS experts who have been involved in the development of the technology from the start

List of Contributors xv

Foreword xvii

Acknowledgements xix

1 Introduction 1
Hermann Koch and John Brunke

1.1 General 1

1.2 Definitions 4

1.3 Standards and References 9

1.4 Ratings 14

2 Basic Information 18
Hermann Koch, John H. Brunke, and John Boggess

2.1 History 18

2.2 Physics of Gas Insulated Switchgear 34

2.3 Reliability and Availability 40

2.4 Design 50

2.5 Safety 53

2.6 Grounding and Bonding 62

2.7 Factors for Choosing Gas Insulated Substations 66

2.8 Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) 71

References 108

3 Technology 110
Hermann Koch, George Becker, Xi Zhu, and Devki Sharma

3.1 General 110

3.2 Modular Components, Design, and Development Process 113

3.3 Manufacturing 130

3.4 Specification Development 142

3.5 Instrument Transformers 171

3.6 Interfaces 175

3.7 Gas Insulated Surge Arresters 185

3.8 Gas Insulated Bus 186

References 205

4 Control and Monitoring 206
Hermann Koch, Noboru Fujimoto, and Pravakar Samanta

4.1 General 206

4.2 GIS Monitoring 207

4.3 Local Control Cabinet 215

4.4 Digital Communication 221

References 233

5 Testing 235
Peter Grossmann and Charles L Hand

5.1 General 235

5.2 Type Tests 235

5.3 Routine Tests 241

5.4 On-Site Field Testing 243

References 246

6 Installation 247
Hermann Koch, Richard Jones, and James Massura

6.1 General 247

6.2 Installation 248

6.3 Energization: Connecting to the Power Grid 280

7 Operation and Maintenance 282
Hermann Koch, Charles L Hand, Arnaud Ficheux, Richard Jones, and Ravi Dhara

7.1 General 282

7.2 Operation of a Gas Insulated Substation 283

7.3 Maintenance 302

7.4 SF6 Gas Leakage Repair 303

7.5 Repair 306

7.6 Extensions 307

7.7 GIS Retrofit or Upgrade 311

7.8 Overloading and Thermal Limits 315

8 Applications 321
Hermann Koch, Peter Grossmann, Arun Arora, and Dave Solhtalab

8.1 General 321

8.2 Typical GIS Layouts 321

8.3 Reference Projects 324

8.4 GIS Case Study 371

8.5 Mobile GIS 376

8.6 Mixed Technology Switchgear (MTS) 385

8.7 Future Developments 390

References 399

9 Other Topics 400
Hermann Koch, Venkatesh Minisandram, Arnaud Ficheux, George Becker, Noboru Fujimoto, and Jorge Márquez-Sánchez

9.1 General 400

9.2 Environment 401

9.3 Life Cycle Cost Analysis 412

9.4 Insulation Coordination Study 421

9.5 Very Fast Transients 426

9.6 Project Scope Development 437

9.7 Risk-Based Asset Management of Gas Insulated Substations and Equipment 441

9.8 Health and Safety Impact 451

9.9 Electromagnetic Field 452

9.10 SF6 Decomposition Byproducts 453

References 456

10 Conclusion 458
Hermann Koch

Further Reading 459
Devki Sharma

Index 463

“There is a wealth of information on GIS all in one reference book.”  (IEEE Electrical Engineering magazine, 1 March 2015)