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Gas-Phase Synthesis of Nanoparticles

Gas-Phase Synthesis of Nanoparticles

Yves Huttel (Editor)

ISBN: 978-3-527-34060-6

Jun 2017

416 pages

In Stock

$205.00

Description

The first overview of this topic begins with some historical aspects and a survey of the principles of the gas aggregation method. The second part covers modifications of this method resulting in different specialized techniques, while the third discusses the post-growth treatment that can be applied to the nanoparticles. The whole is rounded off by a review of future perspectives and the challenges facing the scientific and industrial communities.
An excellent resource for anyone working with the synthesis of nanoparticles, both in academia and industry.

List of Contributors xiii

Preface xix

Part I Introduction to Gas Phase Aggregation Sources 1

1 History, Some Basics, and an Outlook 3
Hellmut Haberland

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Three Types of Gas Aggregation Sources 5

1.3 Development of the Magnetron Cluster Source 6

1.4 Deposition Machine and Mass Spectra 9

1.5 Some Experimental Questions 11

1.6 Deposition of Clusters with Variable Kinetic Energy 14

1.7 Outlook and Future Development 17

2 Principles of Gas Phase Aggregation 23
PatriceMélinon

2.1 The Landscape 23

2.2 Step 2: Nucleation 24

2.3 Kinetic Nucleation Theory 26

2.4 Clusters in Real Gases 30

2.5 S > 1: Adiabatic Expansion 31

2.6 S â 1: Supersonic Beam with Buffer Gas 33

2.7 Size Distribution 33

3 Types of Cluster Sources 39
José A. De Toro, Peter S. Normile, and Christopher Binns

3.1 High-Vacuum Free Beam Sources 39

3.2 Generic Aspects of Design 39

3.3 Seeded Supersonic Nozzle Source (SSNS) 40

3.4 Thermal Gas Aggregation Source (TGAS) 42

3.5 Sputter Gas Aggregation Source (SGAS) 42

3.6 Laser Ablation Source (LAS) 45

3.7 Pulsed-Arc Cluster Ion Source (PACIS) 46

3.8 Pulsed Microplasma Cluster Source (PMCS) 47

3.9 Comparison and Specialization of Sources 48

Part II Modifications of Gas Phase Aggregation Sources 57

4 The Double-Laser Ablation Source Approach 59
Piero Ferrari, Jan Vanbuel, Yejun Li, Ting-Wei Liao, Ewald Janssens, and Peter Lievens

4.1 Introduction 59

4.2 Source Description 60

4.3 Studies on Bimetallic Clusters 66

4.4 Conclusions 74

5 In-PlaneMultimagnetron Approach 79
Grant E. Johnson and Julia Laskin

5.1 Introduction 79

5.2 The Multitarget Single-Magnetron Approach 82

5.3 The Multimagnetron Approach 86

5.4 Summary 95

6 Adjustable Multimagnetron Approach 101
Lidia Martínez

6.1 Introduction 101

6.2 Design and New Parameters of Multimagnetron Gas Aggregation Sources 104

6.3 Possibilities in the Fabrication of Nanoparticles with Multimagnetron Approach 106

6.4 Summary, Perspectives, and Applications 117

7 Hollow Cylindrical Magnetron 123
Vitor Toshiyuki Abrao Oiko, Artur Domingues Tavares de Sá, and Varlei Rodrigues

7.1 Introduction 123

7.2 Project Design and Implementation 124

7.3 Characterization 126

7.4 Cluster Production 128

7.5 Alternative Cylindrical Geometries for Magnetron Sputtering 131

7.6 Concluding Remarks 132

8 High-Flux DC Magnetron Sputtering 137
Marco César Maicas Ramos and María del Mar Sanz Lluch

8.1 Introduction 137

8.2 Gas Flow 139

8.3 Oxygen-Assisted Synthesis 146

8.4 Ion Beams 148

8.5 Conclusions 152

9 High-Flux Metal Vapor Cell 155
Gail N. Iles

9.1 Introduction 155

9.2 Vapor Cell Components 156

9.3 Vapor Pressure 159

9.4 Methods and Techniques 163

9.5 Devices Using Metal Vapor Cells 167

9.6 Summary 171

10 Microwave Plasma Synthesis of Nanoparticles 175
Dieter Vollath

10.1 Introduction 175

10.2 Basic Design of Microwave Plasma Systems and Resulting Products 187

10.3 Realization of Microwave Plasma Systems for Synthesis of Coated Nanoparticles 195

11 Enhanced Synthesis of Aggregates by Reduced Temperature, Pulsed Magnetron Sputtering, and Pulsed Buffer Gas Delivery 203
Vitezslav Stranak and Rainer Hippler

11.1 Introduction to Nanoparticle Aggregation 203

11.2 Experiment 204

11.3 Kinetic Phenomena during Cluster Growth 205

11.4 Pulsed Sputtering of Metal Target 212

11.5 Pulsed Delivery of Buffer Gas 216

11.6 Cluster Mass Flux in a Gas Dynamic System 221

11.7 Conclusions 223

12 High-Power Pulsed Plasmas 227
Iris Pilch

12.1 Background: High-Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering 227

12.2 Synthesis of Nanoparticles Using High-Power Pulsed Plasmas 230

12.3 Summary and Outlook 239

13 High-Pressure and Reactive Gas Magnetron Sputtering 243
Lakshmi Kolipaka and Stefan Vajda

13.1 Introduction 243

13.2 Types of Reactive Sputtering 244

13.3 Hysteresis Effect in DC Reactive Sputtering 244

13.4 Methods to Overcome Hysteresis 246

13.5 Arcing in Reactive Sputter Deposition 251

13.6 Methods to Overcome Arcing Problem 251

13.7 Modeling of Reactive Sputtering 254

13.8 Implementation of High-Pressure and Reactive Gas Sputtering in Gas Aggregation Sources (GASs) 257

Part III In-Flight Post-GrowthManipulation of Nanoparticles 269

14 Coating 271
Panagiotis Grammatikopoulos and Mukhles Sowwan

14.1 Core/Shell Nanoparticles 271

14.2 Fabrication Methods 273

14.3 Structural Modification via In-flight Coating 278

14.4 Summary 282

15 Nanostructuring, Orientation, and Annealing 287
Balamurugan Balasubramanian and David J. Sellmyer

15.1 Introduction and Scope 287

15.2 Control of Crystal Structures 287

15.3 Nanostructuring 294

15.4 Conclusions 298

16 Deflection and Mass Filtering 303
Marcel Di Vece

16.1 Introduction 303

16.2 Magnetic Deflection 305

16.3 The Time-of-FlightMass Filter 306

16.4 The Reflectron TOF Mass Filter 308

16.5 The Quadrupole Mass Filter 308

16.6 Aerodynamic Lenses 310

16.7 TheWien Filter 312

16.8 Magnetic Sector 312

16.9 Cluster Ion Traps 313

16.10 Matter-Wave Interferometry 313

16.11 Comparison of Mass Filters 314

16.12 Mass Filtering Requirements for Applications 315

16.13 Conclusions 316

17 In-Flight and Postdeposition Manipulation of Mass-Filtered Nanoparticles under Soft-Landing Conditions 323
Joachim Bansmann, Armin Kleibert, Hendrik Bettermann, and Mathias Getzlaff

17.1 Introduction 323

17.2 In-Flight Manipulation of Cluster Beams 325

17.3 Soft Landing 327

17.4 Summary 333

18 In-Flight Analysis 339
Sergio D’Addato

18.1 Introduction 339

18.2 Electron Diffraction and X-ray Scattering Analysis of Clusters and Nanoparticles 340

18.3 Photoelectron and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy 345

18.4 Magnetic Deflection Experiments 350

18.5 X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism Experiments 355

18.6 Conclusions 358

Part IV Perspectives 365

19 Nano- and Micromanufacturing with Nanoparticles Produced in the Gas Phase: An Emerging Tool for Functional and Length-Scale Integration 367
PaoloMilani and Luca G. Bettini

19.1 Introduction 367

19.2 Site-Selected Nanoparticle Deposition 369

19.3 Supersonic Cluster Beam Deposition 370

19.4 System Integration Approach by SCBD 375

19.5 Conclusions 380

References 380

Index 387