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Gas Transfer at Water Surfaces

M. A. Donelan (Editor), W. M. Drennan (Editor), E. S. Saltzman (Editor), R. Wanninkhof (Editor)

ISBN: 978-0-875-90986-8 January 2002 American Geophysical Union 383 Pages


Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 127.

The transfer of gases across the air-water interface has received much attention over the past two decades, particularly in light of increased societal interest in the exchange of greenhouse gases and pollutants between natural water bodies and the atmosphere. Gas transfer at the interface between liquids and gases holds great fascination for a wide range of researchers, from fluid dynamicists to biogeochemists. However, the phenomena of gas transfer, and the problems we face in understanding them, involve daunting issues, including multi-phase flows over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Such complexity is increased by the presence of surface films of both natural and anthropogenic origin, which can modify the physical and chemical nature of the interface. As a result, the challenge of working on gas transfer has stimulated the development of multidisciplinary, collaborative efforts and the development of a variety of innovative experimental and observational techniques.

Mark A. Donelan, William M. Drennan, Eric S. Saltzman, and Rik Wanninkhof ix


Gas Transfer at Water Surfaces Concepts and Issues
Mark A. Donelan and Rik Wanninkhof 1

Section 1: Effects of Surface Waves and Turbulence on Gas Transfer

Turbulence Generated by Microscale Breaking Waves and Its Influence on Air-Water Gas Transfer
Muhammad H. K. Siddiqui, Mark R. Loewen, Christine Richardson, William E. Asher, and Andrew T. Jessup 11

On the Surface Kinematics of Microscale Breaking Wind Waves
William L. Peirson and Michael L. Banner 17

Effect of Microscale Wave Breaking on Air-Water Gas Transfer
C. J. Zappa, W. E. Asher, A. T. jessup, J. Klinke, and S. R. Long 23

Statistics of Geometric Properties of Breaking Wind Waves Observed in Laboratory
Guillemette Caulliez 31

Overview of the CoOP Experiments: Physical and Chemical Measurements
Parameterizing Air-Sea Heat Exchange
Erik John Bock, James Bearer Edson, Nelson M. Frew, Tetsu Hara, Horst Haussecker, Bernd Jahne,
Wade R. McCillis, Sean P. McKenna, Robert K. Nelson, Uwe Schimpf, and Mete Uz 39

Surface Wave Observations During CoOP Experiments and Their Relation to Air-Sea Gas Transfer
Tetsu Hara, B. Mete Uz, Hua Wei, James B. Edson, Nelson M. Frew, Wade R. McCillis,
Sean P. McKenna, Erik J. Bock, Horst Hau&ecker, and Uwe Schimpf 45

On the Investigations of Statistical Properties of the Micro Turbulence at the Ocean Surface
Uwe Schimpf, Bernd Jahne, and Horst Hauliecker 51

On the Skewness of the Sea Slope Probability Distribution
Bertrand Chapron, D. Vandemark, and T. Elfouhaily 59

Directional Distributions and Mean Square Slopes of Surface Waves
Paul A. Hwang and David W. Wang 65

Numerical Simulation of Hydrodynamic Processes Beneath a Wind-Driven Water Surface
Wu-Ting Tsai 71

Direct Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Free Surface Flow with Carbon-Dioxide Gas Absorption
Tomoaki Kunugi and Shin-ichi Satake 77

LIF Measurements of Oxygen Concentration Gradients Along Flat and Wavy Air-Water Interfaces
Philip T. Woodrow, Jr. and Steve R. Duke 83

A Direct Visualization Method of C 0 2 Gas Transfer at Water Surface Driven by Wind Waves
Kohsei Takehara and Goji T. Etoh 89

Measurements of Wind-Driven Current Near the Water Surface by the Use of the PTV Method
Hajime Kato, Hisamichi Nobuoka, and Naoki Ooshima 97

Physics from IR Image Sequences: Quantitative Analysis of Transport Models and Parameters of Air-Sea Gas Transfer
Horst W. Haussecker, Uwe Schimpf, Christoph S. Garbe, and Bernd Jahne 103

Measuring the Sea Surface Heat Flux and Probability Distribution of Surface Renewal Events
Christoph S. Garbe, Bernd jahne, and Horst Hauliecker 109

Effects of Counter-Swell on Both the Mean Current and Turbulent Structure Below the Wind-Waves
Shinjiro Mizuno 115

A Closer Look at Short Waves Generated by Wave Interactions With Adverse Currents
Steven R. Long and Jochen Klinket 121

Surface Divergence and Air-Water Gas Transfer
Sean R. McKenna and Wade R. McGillis 129

Section 2: Effects of Buoyancy and Surfactants on Gas Transfer

The Critical Importance of Buoyancy Flux for Gas Flux Across the Air-Water Interface
Sally Maclntyre, Werner Eugster, and George W. Kling 135

A Model of Air-Sea Gas Exchange Incorporating the Physics of the Turbulent Boundary Layer
and the Properties of the Sea Surface
Alexander Soloviev and Peter Schluessel 141

Air-Lake Interaction and Surface Layer Processes
C. N. Panin, A. E. Nasonov, and S. C . Sarkisian 147

Spatial Variations in Surface Microlayer Surfactants and Their Role in Modulating Air-Sea Exchange
Nelson M. Frew, Robert K. Nelson, Wade R. McGillis, James B. Edson, Erik J. Bock, and Tetsu Hara 153

Thermal Profiling of the Sea Surface Skin Layer Using FTIR Measurements
Jennifer A. Hanafin and Peter J. Minnett 161

An Autonomous Profiler for Near Surface Temperature Measurements
Brian Ward and Peter J. Minnett 167

Water Column C02 Measurements During the Gas Ex-98 Expedition
R. A. Feely, R. Wanninkhof, D. A. Hansell, M. F. Lamb, D. Greeley, and K. Lee 173

Fine Thermohaline Structure and Gas-Exchange in the Near-Surface Layer of the Ocean During GasEx-98
Alexander Soloviev, Jim Edson, Wade McGillis, Peter Schluessel, and Rik Wanninkhof 181

Section 3: Gas Transfer in Strong Turbulent Flows

A Field Study of Whitecap Coverage and Its Modulations by Energy Containing Surface Waves

The Physical and Practical Implications of a C02 Gas Transfer Coefficient That Varies as the Cube of the Wind Speed
Edward C. Monahan 193

Fractional Area Whitecap Coverage and Air-Sea Gas Transfer Velocities Measured During GasEx-98
William Asher, James Edson, Wade McGillis, Rik Wanninkhof, David T. Ho, and Trina Litchendorf 199

Gas Transfer in Energetic Conditions
David Kevin Woolf 205

Estimation of Whitecap Coverage Percentage Using Shallow Grazing-Angle Video and FMICW Radar
Craig L. Stevens, M. J. Smith, and J. A. McGregor 213

ASGAMAGE, the Air-Sea Gas Exchange/MAGE Experiment
Wiebe Oost and AS AM AGE participants 219

Comparison of the Deliberate Tracer Method and Eddy Covariance Measurements
to Determine the Air/Sea Transfer Velocity of C02
Cor Jacobs, Phil Nightingale, Rob Upstill-Goddard, Jorgen Friis Kjeld, Soren Larsen, and Wiebe Oost 225

Gas Transfer Velocities for 3He in a Lake at High Wind Speeds
Philippe Jean-Baptiste, Elise Fourre, and Alain Poisson 233

Measurement Uncertainty in Gas Exchange Coefficients
J. S. Gulliver, B. Erickson, A. J. Zaske, and K. S. Shimon 239

Measurements of Free Surface Turbulence
Joseph J. Orlins and John S. Gulliver 247

Gas Transfer Across a Zero-Shear Surface: A Local Approach
Mohamed A. Atmane and Jacques George 255

Atmosphere-Ocean Gas Exchange Due to Bubbles Generated by Wind Wave Breaking
Roman S. Bortkovskii 261

The Effect of Bubbles on Air-Water Oxygen Transfer in the Breaker Zone
Shohachi Kakuno, Douglas B. Moog, Tetsuya Tatekawa, Kenji Takemura, and Tatsuya Yamagishi 265

Bubble Size Distributions on the North Atlantic and North Sea
Gerrit de Leeuw and Leo H. Cohen 271

Measurements of Large Bubbles in Open-Ocean Whitecaps
Dale Stokes, Grant Deane, Svein Vagle, and David Farmer 279

The Effects of Bubbles on Mass Transfer Across the Breaking Air-Water Interface
Satoru Komori and Ryuta Misumi 285

LUMINY - An Overview
C. de Leeuw, C. J. Kunz, C. Caulliez, D. K. Woolf, P. Bowyer, I. Leifer, P. Nightingale, M. Liddicoat, T. 5. Rhee, M. O. Andreae, S. E. Larsen, F. A. Hansen, and 5. Lund 291

Bubbles Outside the Plume During the LUMINY Wind-Wave Experiment
Gerrit de Leeuw and Ira Leifer 295

Bubble Measurements in Breaking-Wave Generated Bubble Plumes During the
LUMINY Wind-Wave Experiment
Ira Leifer and Gerrit de Leeuw 303

An Experimental Study of Bubble Mediated Gas Exchange for a Single Bubble
Nobuhito Mori, Masahiro Imamura, and Ryosuke Yamamoto 311

Better Bubble Process Modeling: Improved Bubble Hydrodynamics Parameterization
Ranjan Patro, Ira Leifer, and Peter Bowyer 315

Development and Testing of an Eddy Accumulator
W. John Cooper, Mehran Alaee, and Mark Donelan 321

Section 4: Remote Sensing for Large-Scale Gas Transfer

A Multi-Year Time Series of Global Gas Transfer Velocity from theTOPEX Dual Frequency,
Normalized Radar Backscatter Algorithm
David M. Glover, Nelson M. Frew, Scott J . McCue, and Erik J . Bock 325

A Global, High Resolution, Satellite-Based Model of Air-Sea Isoprene Flux
David J. Erickson III and Jose L. Hernandez 333

Daily Surface Wind Fields Produced by Merged Satellite Data
Abderrahim Bentamy, Kristina B. Katsaros, William M. Drennan, and Evan B. Forde 343

The Effect of Using Time-Averaged Winds on Regional Air-Sea C 0 2 Fluxes
Rik Wanninkhof, Scott C. Doney, Taro Takahashi, and Wade R. McGillis 351

Section 5: Gas Transfer by Aeration

A Dynamic Method to Estimate the Reoxygenation Rate at Hydraulic Structures
Badre E. Boumansour, Olivier Dufayt, Jean L. Vasel, and Jean M. Hiver 357

Mass Transfer in Bubbly Flows: Influence of Physico-Chemical and Hydrodynamic Conditions
Cornelia Lang 363

Air-Water Gas Transfer in Uniform Flows With Large Gravel-Bed Roughness
Douglas B. Moog and Gerhard H. Jirka 371

Large Scale Laboratory Experiments for Water Oxygenation Under Breaking Waves
V. K. Tsoukala, E. I. Dan HI, and C. I. Moutzouris 377