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Genetically Modified and non-Genetically Modified Food Supply Chains: Co-Existence and Traceability



Genetically Modified and non-Genetically Modified Food Supply Chains: Co-Existence and Traceability

Yves Bertheau (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-444-33778-5 December 2012 Wiley-Blackwell 686 Pages

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In the European Union nations, and other countries including Japan, Australia and Malaysia, it is a legal requirement that food products containing genetically modified organism (GMO) materials are labelled as such in order that customers may make informed purchasing decisions. For manufacturers and consumers to be confident about these assertions, systems must be in place along the entire food chain which support the co-existence of GM and non GM materials whilst maintaining a strict segregation between the two.

This book is an output of a European Union-funded project entitled "Co-Extra: GM and non-GM food and feed supply chains: their Co-Existence and Traceability". The objective of this four year project is to provide practical tools and methods for implementing co-existence that will:

  • enable the co-existence of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM crops
  • enable the segregation and tracing of genetically modified organism (GMO) materials and derived products along the food and feed chains
  • anticipate the future expansion of the use of GMOs

The project is designed to foster a robustly science-based debate amongst all of the stakeholders involved in the food and feed chains, and the tools will be assessed not only from a technical point of view but with regard to the economic and legal aspects. It also surveys the GMO-related legal regimes and practices that exist in and beyond the EU.

This book examines the practical tools and methods available to implement the co-existence and traceability of GM and non-GM food materials along the entire food and feed chains, as demanded by consumers and by legislation in force in the EU and elsewhere. GM and Non-GM Supply Foods is a source of valuable information for food manufacturers, food research institutions and regulatory bodies internationally.

List of Contributors xiii

Foreword xxi
G. Riba. Vice-Chairman of INRA

Part 1: Introduction 1

1 Introduction to the GM and Non-GM Supply Chain Co-Existence and Traceability 3
Y. Bertheau, J. Davison

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 GMO Development 3

1.3 Opinions and Attitudes of European Citizens and Consumers 4

1.4 The Different Regulatory Frames and Risk Perception 6

1.5 European Traceability and Co-Existence Frames 8

1.6 Other Issues 11

1.7 Conclusion 12

References 12

Part 2: Managing Gene Flow 21

2 Contributions of Pollen and Seed to Impurity in Crops – A Comparison of Maize, Oilseed Rape and Beet 23
G.R. Squire, J. Lecomte, A. Hüsken, J. Soukup, A. Messéan

2.1 Introduction 23

2.2 Maize 23

2.3 Oilseed Rape 26

2.4 Beet 29

2.5 Comparison of Species Based on Plant Traits 30

References 32

3 Co-Existence Issues of GM Sugar Beet 35
H. Darmency

3.1 Introduction 35

3.2 Sugar Beet in the World 35

3.3 Overview of Sugar Beet Biology and Agronomy 36

3.4 Pre-cultivation Co-existence Issues 39

3.5 Consequences of Co-existence for the Cropping System in a Region 42

3.6 Consequences of Co-existence for the Genetic Resources 45

3.7 Post-harvest Co-existence Issues 45

3.8 Conclusion 46

References 46

4 Ex Ante Evaluation of Gene Flow in Oilseed Rape with Cropping System Models 49
N. Colbach

4.1 Introduction 49

4.2 Modelling Approach 50

4.3 The Simulation Methodology 51

4.4 Perspectives 58

References 59

5 Biological Containment Strategies for Transgenic Crops 61
R.A. de Maagd, K. Boutilier

5.1 Introduction 61

5.2 Auxotrophy 62

5.3 Inhibition of Flowering and Complete Sterility 62

5.4 Cleistogamy 63

5.5 Transgene Excision 64

5.6 Chloroplast Transformation 65

5.7 Male Sterility 67

5.8 Parthenocarpy 68

5.9 Apomixis 69

5.10 Reduced Shattering 70

5.11 Blocking Seed Germination 70

5.12 Inhibiting Seed Dormancy 72

5.13 Transgenic Mitigation 72

5.14 Concluding Remarks 73

References 73

6 Long-Distance Pollen Flow in Large Fragmented Landscapes 79
Y. Brunet, S. Dupont, S. Delage, D. Garrigou, D. Guyon, S. Dayau, P. Tulet, J.-P. Pinty, C. Lac, J. Escobar, A. Audran, X. Foueillassar

6.1 Introduction 79

6.2 Evidence for Long-distance Cross-pollination of Maize 80

6.3 Modelling Regional Pollen Transport 81

6.4 Model Evaluation 83

6.5 Simulated Regional Pollen Dispersal 84

6.6 Conclusions and Perspectives 84

References 87

7 Current and Future Availability of Non-Genetically Modifi ed Soybean Seeds in the USA, Brazil and Argentina 89
J. Milanesi

7.1 Introduction 89

7.2 Global Overview of the Soybean and Soybean Seed Markets and Related Short-term Issues 90

7.3 Soybean Plant Breeding and Availability of Non-GM Soybean Seeds 94

7.4 The Future of Non-GM Plant Breeding 104

7.5 Conclusion 109

References 110

Part 3: Co-Existence in Food and Feed Supply Chains 113

8 Consumers’ Opinions and Attitudes Towards Co-existence of GM and Non-GM Food Products 115
M. Costa-Font, R.B. Tranter, J.M. Gil

8.1 Introduction 115

8.2 Study Methodology 116

8.3 Literature Review Results 120

8.4 Consumer Survey Results 121

8.5 Conclusions 124

References 124

9 Evaluation of Collection Strategies for Landscape and Product Flow Management 127
F.C. Coléno, F. Angevin

9.1 Introduction 127

9.2 Evaluation of Co-Existence Management Strategies for Grain Merchants 128

9.3 Evaluation of Collection Strategies at the Landscape Level 134

9.4 Conclusion 135

References 138

10 Empirical Analysis of Co-Existence in Commodity Supply Chains 141
N. Gryson, M. Eeckhout, A. Messéan, L-G. Soler, B. Lécroart, A. Trouillier, M. Le Bail, J. Bez, R. Bourgier, J. Copeland, M. Gylling, M. Maciejczak, V. Megliè, K. Menrad, A. Gabriel, M. Stolze, C. Tapia, G. Ghezan, V. Pelaez, R. Rocha dos Santos

10.1 Introduction 141

10.2 Framework 141

10.3 Methodology 143

10.4 Results 145

10.5 Conclusion 155

References 157

11 Modelling and Assessing the Impacts of the Co-Existence Between GM and non-GM Supply Chains: The Starch Maize Supply Chain Example 161
B. Lecroart, A. Messéan, L-G. Soler

11.1 Introduction 161

11.2 Material Flow and Risks of Commingling in the Starch Maize Supply Chain 162

11.3 Model Description 163

11.4 Sensitivity Analysis 167

11.5 Results and Discussion 170

11.6 Conclusion 173

References 173

12 Costs of Segregation and Traceability Between GM and Non-GM Supply Chains of Single Crop and Compound Food/Feed Products 177
K. Menrad, A. Gabriel, J. Bez, M. Gylling, A. Larsen, M. Maciejczak, M. Stolze, N. Gryson, M. Eeckhout, N. Pensel, R. Rocha dos Santos, A. Messéan

12.1 Objectives 177

12.2 Introduction and Regulatory Framework 177

12.3 Methodology 179

12.4 Results 181

12.5 Conclusions 189

References 191

13 Labelling and Co-Existence Regulation of GMOs and Non-GMOs: An Economic Perspective 193
M. Desquilbet, S. Poret

13.1 Introduction 193

13.2 To What Extent Do Consumers Value Non-GM Goods Over GM Goods and Why? 194

13.3 Labelling May Improve Welfare But Is Not A First-Rank Policy to Address Consumer Concerns 201

13.4 Externality Costs of Co-Existence Without A Co-existence Regulation 204

13.5 Co-Existence Regulation 205

13.6 Conclusion 209

Appendix 210

References 211

14 Co-Existence and Traceability in Supply Chains: A Case Study on Belgian Compound Feed 215
N. Gryson, M. Eeckhout

14.1 Compound Feed Production 215

14.2 Traceability and Segregation Systems 218

14.3 Other Costs and Benefi ts along the Supply Chain 224

14.4 Changing Strategies 230

14.5 Conclusion 236

References 237

Part 4: Traceability and Controls in Food and Feed Supply Chains 243

15 GMO Sampling Strategies in Food and Feed Chains 245
R. Onori, J. Šuštar-Vozliè, G. Bellocchi, G. Berben, A. Blejec, C. Brera, Z. Èergan (Deceased), M. Debeljak, M. De Giacomo, M. De Vivo, T. Esteve, E. Janssen, P. Kozjak, F. Leprince, R. Macarthur, A. Malcevschi, N. Marmiroli, V. Megliè, E. Melé, J. Messeguer, M. Miraglia, A. Nadal, R. Oger, E. Palmaccio, M. Pla, V. Planchon, E. Prantera, K. Rostohar, B. Vršèaj

15.1 Introduction 245

15.2 The EC Recommendation 2004/787: Methodologies, Applications and Limitations 246

15.3 Co-Extra Results for Different Scenarios of the Food and Feed Chain 246

15.4 Conclusion 267

References 269

16 Harmonised Reference Genes and PCR Assays for GMO Quantification 273
I. Taverniers, N. Papazova, T. Allnutt, S. Baumler, Y. Bertheau, T. Esteve, R. Freyer, K. Gruden, B. Kuznetzov, J. Luis La Paz, A. Nadal, M. Pla, J. Vojvoda, D. Wulff, D. Zhang2

16.1 Introduction: Regulatory Framework on Reference Assays 273

16.2 Overview of Existing Reference Assays 274

16.3 Reliability Testing of Existing Reference Assays 274

16.4 Harmonised Definitions, Terminology and Technical Criteria for Designing New Reference Assays 277

16.5 Core Collections for Specifi city, Uniformity and Stability Testing of Reference Assays for GMO Quantification 280

16.6 Conclusion 289

References 290

17 The Modular Approach in GMO Quality Control and Enforcement Support Systems 293
M. Van den Bulcke, G. Bellocchi, G. Berben, M. Burns, K. Cankar, M. De Giacomo, K. Gruden, A. Holst-Jensen, A. Malcewsky, M. Mazzara, R. Onori, N. Papazova, E. Parlouer, I. Taverniers, S. Trapmann, D. Wulff, D. Zhang2

17.1 Enforcing the Legal GMO Framework by Harmonised Control Analysis 293

17.2 Validation of GMO Test Methods: A Modular Versus a Global Approach 294

17.3 Co-Extra Assessment of the Modular Approach in GMO Analysis 295

17.4 Decision Support Systems (DSS) Within a Modular Approach 303

17.5 Modular Approaches and Enforcement Implementation 304

17.6 Conclusion 304

References 305

18 Reliability and Cost of GMO Detection 307
K. Gruden, T.R. Allnutt, M. Ayadi, S. Baeumler, C. Bahrdt, G. Berben, K.G. Berdal, Y. Bertheau, C. Bøydler Andersen, P. Brodmann, M. Buh Gašpariè, M.J. Burns, A.M. Burrel, K. Cankar, T. Esteve, A. Holst-Jensen, A.B. Kristoffersen, J. La Paz, D. Lee, A. Løvseth, R. Macarthur, D. Morisset, M. Pla, R.B. Rud, C. Skjæret, T. Tengs, H. Valdivia, D. Wulff, D. Zhang2, J. ?el

18.1 Introduction 307

18.2 Accurate Determination of the Limit of Detection Associated with GMO Analysis 308

18.3 Improvements in the Limit of Quantification 310

18.4 Reliability of GMO Quantifi cation 313

18.5 DNA Extraction from Highly Processed Matrixes 317

18.6 Evaluation of Alternative Chemistries in Real-time PCR 318

18.7 Evaluation of Different Machines for GMO Quantifi cation by Real-time PCR 321

18.8 Evaluation of Automation Potential in GMO Detection 324

18.9 Conclusions and Perspectives 327

References 329

19 New Multiplexing Tools for Reliable GMO Detection 333
M. Pla, A. Nadal, V. Baeten, C. Bahrdt, G. Berben, Y. Bertheau, A. Coll, J.P. van Dijk, D. Dobnik., J.A. Fernandez Pierna, K. Gruden, S. Hamels, A. Holck, A. Holst-Jensen, E. Janssen, E.J. Kok, J.L. La Paz, V. Laval, S. Leimanis, A. Malcevschi, N. Marmiroli, D. Morisset, T.W. Prins, J. Remacle, G. Ujhelyi, D. Wulff

19.1 Introduction 333

19.2 From Duplex to Oligoplex PCR 336

19.3 Non-PCR Methods 353

19.4 High Grade Multiplex Approaches 357

19.5 Conclusions 361

References 362

20 Towards Detection of Unknown GMOs 367
A. Holst-Jensen, K.G. Berdal, Y. Bertheau, M. Bohanec, J. Bohlin, M. Chaouachi, K. Gruden, S. Hamels, E.J. Kok, A. Krech, A.B. Kristoffersen, V. Laval, S. Leimanis, M. Løvoll, D. Morisset, A. Nemeth, N. Papazova, T.W. Prins, J. Remacle, P. Richl, T. Ruttink, I. Taverniers, T. Tengs, J.P. van Dijk, D. Wulff, J. ?el, H. Zhang, M. ?nidaršiè

20.1 Introduction 367

20.2 Classifications of GMOs Relevant to Detection 368

10.3 Detection of GMOs – A Short Review 371

20.4 Detection of Unauthorised GMOs 378

20.5 Detection of Unknown GMOs 379

20.6 Conclusion 380

References 380

21 Method Validation and Reference Materials 383
G. Bellocchi, Y. Bertheau, M. De Giacomo, A. Holst-Jensen, R. Macarthur, M. Mazzara, R. Onori, I. Taverniers, M. van den Bulcke, S. Trapmann

21.1 The Concept of Validation 383

21.2 Single Laboratory Validation 385

21.3 Collaborative Validation of Methods 386

21.4 Innovative Statistical Approaches for Method Validation 387

21.5 The Modular Approach 388

21.6 The Use of CRMs (Certifi ed Reference Materials) and Possible Alternatives in View of Standardisation and Accreditation 390

21.7 Addressing the Compatibility of the Control Plans throughout the Chains 393

21.8 Conclusion and Perspectives 397

References 398

Part 5: Legal Regimes, Liability and Redress Issues 403

22 Liability and Redress Options for Damage Caused by GMOs 405
B.A. Koch

22.1 Introduction 405

22.2 Prevention of Future Harm 406

22.3 Redress for Damage 406

22.4 Outlook 412

References 413

23 Legal Issues, an Overview on Co-Existence Policies: Technological Pluralism, Confidence Economy, Transnational Supply Chains 415
M.-A. Hermitte, S. Anvar, M. Bonin, N. Bargues, G. Canselier, S. Desmoulin, A. Langlais, J.C. Varela

23.1 Introduction 415

23.2 The Juridical Nature of Co-Existence Policy 416

23.3 Keypoints of Supply Chain Structuring 419

23.4 Import Supply Chains and GMOs 424

23.5 A Liability System Adapted to a Controversial Technology 428

23.6 Conclusion 430

References 430

24 The Judge’s Role Concerning Science in Precautionary Measures: A Shift from Guide to Arbitrator 433
C. Noiville

24.1 Introduction 433

24.2 The Judge: A Guide to Administrative Action 434

24.3 Judges as Arbitrators of Scientifi c Assessments? 447

24.4 Conclusion 454

References 454

Part 6: Data Integration and DSS 459

25 The Co-Extra Decision Support System: A Model-Based Integration of Project Results 461
M. Bohanec, Y. Bertheau, C. Brera, K. Gruden, A. Holst-Jensen, E.J. Kok, B. Lécroart, A. Messéan, M. Miraglia, R. Onori, T.W. Prins, L-G. Soler, M. ?nidaršiè

25.1 Introduction 461

25.2 Approach and Methodology 462

25.3 Components of the Co-Extra DSS 464

25.4 Assessment of Analytical Methods 464

25.5 Assessment of Sampling Methods 472

25.6 Assessment of Products Using Traceability Data 477

25.7 Assessment of Processes 482

25.8 Database and Web-based Implementation 485

25.9 Conclusions 487

References 488

Part 7: Related Issues 491

26 Integration of Co-Extra Results in EU Tools for Traceability 493
G. van den Eede, D. Plan

26.1 Overview of EU Legislation on GMOs 493

26.2 Achievements in the EU Harmonisation of GMO Analysis 497

26.3 Challenges Ahead 499

26.4 Conclusion 518

References 518

27 Labelling and Detection of GM Crops and Derived Products: Regulatory Frameworks and Research Issues in East Asia 521
D. Zhang1, L. Yang, C.-H. Lee, S-H. Lee, B.-J. Kuo, K. Kitta, M. Tachikawa

27.1 Introduction 521

27.2 People’s Republic of China 522

27.3 Korea 527

27.4 Taiwan 532

27.5 Japan 534

27.6 Conclusion 538

References 539

28 Maintaining a Supply of Non-GM Feed – A Strategic Issue for European Regional Agriculture 543
R. Layadi

28.1 Introduction 543

28.2 The GMO-free Regions Network 544

28.3 The Feed Question: A Major Issue for Regional Agriculture 544

28.4 GMO-free Agriculture, a Vital Issue for Regions 548

28.5 Getting a Solid Strategic and Tactical Background: Lessons from the Cold War 550

28.6 An Essential Question: Who Decides On the Defi nition of A Market? 554

References 555

29 A Geographical Approach to the European Policy for the Co-Existence of GMO and Non-GMO Crops 563
E. Glon

29.1 Introduction 563

29.2 EU Scenarios for the Co-Existence of GM and Non-GM Crops 564

29.3 Dedicated Areas – A Geographical Analysis 571

29.4 A Few Lines for Thought with Regard to Co-Existence in Territories 580

29.5 Conclusion 585

References 587

30 Segregating Supply Chains: a Cost–Benefit Perspective 591
J.K. Hammitt, W.W. Wilson

30.1 Introduction 591

30.2 Social Benefits of Co-Existence 591

30.3 Consumer Valuation of GMO-free Foods 593

30.4 Background on Developments in North American Wheat 595

30.5 Costs of Segregating Wheat to Conform to EU Traceability Standards 595

30.6 Contract Mechanisms to Facilitate Co-Existence 596

30.7 Summary and Implications 602

30.8 Conclusion 602

References 603

31 Co-Existence and Traceability in the EU Versus IP Systems in Third Countries 605
R. Rocha dos Santos, N. Pensel, R. Green

31.1 Introduction 605

31.2 Mercosur and Europe: Different But Complementary 606

31.3 The GM Soybeans in Mercosur 606

31.4 Food Regulation 609

31.5 EU, Mercosur and Traceability 610

31.6 Contracts and Private Regulations 611

31.7 Third Party Certifi cation Companies, the Key Players 612

31.8 The Traders’ Role 613

31.9 Final Considerations 614

References 615

Part 8: Conclusion 617

32 GM and Non-GM Supply Chain Co-Existence and Traceability: Context and Perspectives 619
Y. Bertheau

32.1 Introduction 619

32.2 Background 619

32.3 Co-Existence 624

32.4 Traceability 628

32.5 Conclusion 629

References 630

Index 643

A colour plate section falls between pages 314 and 315

“This valuable guideline examines the practical tools and methods available to implement the co-existence and traceability of GM and non-GM food materials along the entire food chains, as demanded by consumers and by legislation in force in the EU and elsewhere.”  (Advances in Food Sciences, 1 October 2013)

". . . if co-existence and traceability are your interests, this is a book you need to have on your shelves." (GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain, March 2013)