Skip to main content

Geographic Information Science and Systems, 4th Edition

Geographic Information Science and Systems, 4th Edition

Paul A. Longley, Michael F. Goodchild, David J. Maguire, David W. Rhind

ISBN: 978-1-119-03130-7

Mar 2015

496 pages

$64.00

Description

Effective use of today’s powerful GIS technology requires an understanding of the science of problem-solving that underpins it. Since the first edition published over a decade ago, this book has led the way, with its focus on the scientific principles that support GIS usage. It has also provided thorough, upto- date coverage of GIS procedures, techniques and public policy applications. This unique combination of science, technology and practical problem solving has made this book a best-seller across a broad spectrum of disciplines. This fully updated 4th edition continues to deliver on these strengths.

Related Resources

FOREWORD x

DEDICATION xi

PREFACE xii

LIST OF ACRONYMS xiv

Introduction

1 Geographic Information: Science, Systems, and Society 1

1.1 Introduction: What Are GI Science and Systems, and Why Do They Matter? 1

1.2 Data, Information, Evidence, Knowledge, and Wisdom 9

1.3 GI Science and Systems 11

1.4 The Technology of Problem Solving 14

1.5 The Disciplinary Setting of GI Science and Systems (GISS) 16

1.6 GI Science and Spatial Thinking 30

1.7 GI Systems and Science in Society 31

Questions for Further Study 32

Further Reading 32

1 Principles

2 The Nature of Geographic Data 33

2.1 Introduction 33

2.2 The Fundamental Problem 34

2.3 Spatial Autocorrelation and Scale 37

2.4 Spatial Sampling 39

2.5 Sampling and VGI 42

2.6 Distance Decay 43

2.7 Measuring Distance Effects as Spatial Autocorrelation 48

2.8 Taming Geographic Monsters 51

2.9 Induction and Deduction and How It All Comes Together 53

Questions for Further Study 54

Further Reading 54

3 Representing Geography 55

3.1 Introduction 55

3.2 Digital Representation 57

3.3 Representation of What and for Whom? 58

3.4 The Fundamental Problem 61

3.5 Discrete Objects and Continuous Fields 62

3.6 Rasters and Vectors 66

3.7 The Paper Map 69

3.8 Generalization 71

3.9 Conclusion 76

Questions for Further Study 76

Further Reading 76

4 Georeferencing 77

4.1 Introduction 77

4.2 Place-Names and Points of Interest 80

4.3 Postal Addresses and Postal Codes 82

4.4 IP Addresses 84

4.5 Linear Referencing Systems 84

4.6 Cadasters and the U.S. Public Land Survey System 85

4.7 Measuring the Earth: Latitude and Longitude 86

4.8 Projections and Coordinates 88

4.9 Measuring Latitude, Longitude, and Elevation: GPS 94

4.10 Converting Georeferences 95

4.11 Geotagging and Mashups 96

4.12 Georegistration 96

4.13 Summary 98

Questions for Further Study 98

Further Reading 98

5 Uncertainty 99

5.1 Introduction 99

5.2 U1: Uncertainty in the Conception of Geographic Phenomena 101

5.3 U2: Further Uncertainty in the Representation of Geographic Phenomena 111

5.4 U3: Further Uncertainty in the Analysis of Geographic Phenomena 117

5.5 Consolidation 126

Questions for Further Study 127

Further Reading 127

2 Techniques

6 GI System Software 128

6.1 Introduction 128

6.2 The Evolution of GI System Software 129

6.3 Architecture of GI System Software 131

6.4 Building GI Software Systems 136

6.5 GI Software Vendors 137

6.6 Types of GI Systems 140

6.7 Conclusion 150

Questions for Further Study 151

Further Reading 151

7 Geographic Data Modeling 152

7.1 Introduction 152

7.2 GI Data Models 154

7.3 Example of a Water-Facility Object Data Model 168

7.4 Geographic Data Modeling in Practice 170

Questions for Further Study 172

Further Reading 172

8 Data Collection 173

8.1 Introduction 173

8.2 Primary Geographic Data Capture 175

8.3 Secondary Geographic Data Capture 181

8.4 Obtaining Data from External Sources (Data Transfer) 187

8.5 Capturing Attribute Data 190

8.6 Citizen-Centric Web-Based Data Collection 190

8.7 Managing a Data Collection Project 191

Questions for Further Study 193

Further Reading 193

9 Creating and Maintaining Geographic Databases 194

9.1 Introduction 194

9.2 Database Management Systems 195

9.3 Storing Data in DBMS Tables 198

9.4 SQL 201

9.5 Geographic Database Types and Functions 202

9.6 Geographic Database Design 205

9.7 Structuring Geographic Information 206

9.8 Editing and Data Maintenance 212

9.9 Multiuser Editing of Continuous Databases 213

9.10 Conclusion 214

Questions for Further Study 216

Further Reading 216

10 The GeoWeb 217

10.1 Introduction 217

10.2 Distributing the Data 222

10.3 The Mobile User 227

10.4 Distributing the Software: GI Services 233

10.5 Prospects 235

Questions for Further Study 236

Further Reading 236

3 Analysis

11 Cartography and Map Production 237

11.1 Introduction 237

11.2 Maps and Cartography 241

11.3 Principles of Map Design 246

11.4 Map Series 257

11.5 Applications 261

11.6 Conclusion 265

Questions for Further Study 265

Further Reading 265

12 Geovisualization 266

12.1 Introduction: Uses, Users, Messages, and Media 266

12.2 Geovisualization, Spatial Query, and User Interaction 268

12.3 Geovisualization and Transformation 274

12.4 Participation, Interaction, Augmentation, and Dynamic Representation 280

12.5 Consolidation 288

Questions for Further Study 289

Further Reading 289

13 Spatial Data Analysis 290

13.1 Introduction: What Is Spatial Analysis? 290

13.2 Analysis Based on Location 295

13.3 Analysis Based on Distance 304

13.4 Conclusion 317

Questions for Further Study 318

Further Reading 318

14 Spatial Analysis and Inference 319

14.1 The Purpose of Area-Based Analyses 319

14.2 Centrality 321

14.3 Analysis of Surfaces 324

14.4 Design 329

14.5 Hypothesis Testing 334

14.6 Conclusion 337

Questions for Further Study 338

Further Reading 338

15 Spatial Modeling with GI Systems 339

15.1 Introduction 339

15.2 Types of Models 343

15.3 Technology for Modeling 351

15.4 Multicriteria Methods 352

15.5 Accuracy and Validity: Testing the Model 354

15.6 Conclusion 356

Questions for Further Study 357

Further Reading 357

4 Policy, Management, and Action

16 Managing GI Systems 358

16.1 Introduction 359

16.2 Managing Risk 359

16.3 The Case for the GI System: ROI 360

16.4 The Process of Developing a Sustainable GI System 366

16.5 Sustaining a GI System—The People and Their Competences 378

16.6 Conclusions 380

Questions for Further Study 380

Further Reading 380

17 Information and Decision Making 381

17.1 Why We Need Information 381

17.2 Information as Infrastructure 386

17.3 Different Forms of GI 391

17.4 Open Data and Open Government 404

17.5 Example of an Information Infrastructure: The Military 406

17.6 Conclusions 409

Questions for Further Study 410

Further Reading 410

18 Navigating the Risks 411

18.1 Clashes Between Scientists and the Judiciary 412

18.2 Business Models for GI-Related Enterprises 412

18.3 Legal and Regulatory Constraints 414

18.4 Privacy and GI Systems 421

18.5 Public Trust, Ethics, and Coping with the Media 424

18.6 Partnerships, Up-Scaling Activities, and Risk Mitigation 426

18.7 Coping with Spatial Stupidity 432

18.8 Conclusions 433

Questions for Further Study 434

Further Reading 434

19 Epilog: GISS in the Service of Humanity 435

19.1 GISS, the Active Citizen, and Citizen Scientists 435

19.2 Context: Our Differentiated World 437

19.3 Context: Our Interdependent World 440

19.4 The Process 441

19.5 The Grand Challenges 443

19.6 Grand Challenges Whose Effects We Can Help to Ameliorate 445

19.7 Conclusions 459

Questions For Further Study 460

Further Reading 460

INDEX 461

  • Subtle change in the title reflects the evolution of the science of problem solving using GI technologies.
  • Sets out the challenges posed by geographically referenced Big Data and Open Data in representing our world
  • Discusses the emergence of data science and other new perspectives
  • Assesses the implications of mobile computing and smartphone technologies for the development of citizen-centered science
  • Reviews the ways in which open software is reshaping the analysis of geographic information
  • Discusses new computationally-intensive analytic methods
  • Suggests how geographic information science and systems help us to address the pervasive and dynamic challenges facing humanity.
  • Presents principles and techniques of GI systems alongside the latest trends in data, software, societal exploitation of technologies, and industry developments
  • Covers applications of how GI systems are used to solve problems from the global to the local levels in a broad range of disciplines, and for government, business, and community initiatives.
  • Includes coverage of the latest Internet mapping interfaces and hand-held devices, and  discusses their adoption and use in scientific investigation
  • Includes learning objectives and review boxes throughout each chapter