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Geologically Storing Carbon: Learning from the Otway Project Experience

Geologically Storing Carbon: Learning from the Otway Project Experience

Peter J. Cook (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-98618-9

Oct 2014

352 pages

Select type: Hardcover

In Stock

$140.00

Description

Carbon capture and geological storage (CCS) is presently the only way that we can make deep cuts in emissions from fossil fuel-based, large-scale sources of CO2 such as power stations and industrial plants. But if this technology is to be acceptable to the community, it is essential that it is credibly demonstrated by world-class scientists and engineers in an open and transparent manner at a commercially significant scale. The aim of the Australian Otway Project was to do just this.

Geologically Storing Carbon provides a detailed account of the CO2CRC Otway Project, one of the most comprehensive demonstrations of the deep geological storage or geosequestration of carbon dioxide undertaken anywhere. This book of 18 comprehensive chapters, written by leading experts in the field, is more than a record of outstanding science- it is about ""learning by doing"". For example, it explains how the project was organised, managed, funded and constructed, as well as the approach taken to community issues, regulations and approvals. It also describes how to understand the site: Are the rocks mechanically suitable? Will the CO2 leak? Is there enough storage capacity? Is monitoring effective?

This is the book for geologists, engineers, regulators, project developers, industry, communities, indeed anyone who wants to better understand how a carbon storage project really works. It is also for people concerned with obtaining an in-depth appreciation of one of the key technology options for decreasing greenhouse emissions to the atmosphere.

Foreword 1 xi

Foreword 2 xii

Preface xiii

Authors xvii

Acknowledgements xx

1. Developing the Project 1
Peter Cook, Mal Lees, Sandeep Sharma

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Developing an Australian project 2

1.3 Developing a suitable corporate structure 10

1.4 Formation of CO2CRC Pilot Project LTD 13

1.5 Funding the project 17

1.6 Designing the Otway Project 22

1.7 Project liability and risk 30

1.8 Conclusions 33

1.9 References 34

2. Communications and the Otway Project 35
Tony Steeper

2.1 Introduction 35

2.2 Strategic communications and the Otway Project 35

2.3 Social research and the Otway Project 40

2.4 Operational issues relating to communications and the community 42

2.5 Conclusions 43

2.6 References 43

3. Government approvals 45
Namiko Ranasinghe

3.1 Introduction 45

3.2 Challenges of regulating a pilot project 47

3.3 Impact assessment and planning approvals 48

3.4 Environmental authority approvals 49

3.5 Petroleum authority approvals 49

3.6 Water authority approvals 51

3.7 Land access and acquisition 51

3.8 Miscellaneous approvals 53

3.9 Transitional arrangements 53

3.10 Liability and responsibility 53

3.11 Stakeholder engagement 54

3.12 Conclusions 55

3.13 References 56

4. Design and operational considerations 57
Craig Dugan, Ian Black, Sandeep Sharma

4.1 Introduction 57

4.2 Options for gas processing 58

4.3 Facilities and pipeline design considerations 64

4.4 Facilities design 66

4.5 Unanticipated operational problems 69

4.6 Conclusions 70

5. Characterising the storage site 71
Tess Dance

5.1 Introduction 71

5.2 Site details 74

5.3 Injectivity 80

5.4 Capacity 81

5.5 Reservoir heterogeneity 83

5.6 Containment 87

5.7 Site analogue 88

5.8 The evolution of the static models 89

5.9 Conclusions 91

5.10 References 92

6. Evaluating CO2 column height retention of cap rocks 97
Richard Daniel, John Kaldi

6.1 Introduction 97

6.2 Mercury injection capillary pressure 98

6.3 Methodology 98

6.4 Pore throat size determination 98

6.5 CO2 contact angle 99

6.6 Determination of seal capacity or column height 101

6.7 Interpreting threshold (breakthrough) pressure 102

6.8 Results for CRC-1 and CRC-2 110

6.9 Conclusions 110

6.10 References 111

7. Geomechanical investigations 113
Eric Tenthorey

7.1 Introduction 113

7.2 Key data for geomechanical assessment of the Otway site 115

7.3 Geomechanical workflow at the Otway site 118

7.4 3D geomechanical modelling 122

7.5 The Iona gas storage facility as an analogue for CO2 storage 123

7.6 Conclusions 126

7.7 References 126

8. Containment risk assessment 129
Maxwell Watson

8.1 Introduction 129

8.2 Methodology 129

8.3 Risk assessment context 131

8.4 Storage complex 131

8.5 Risk items 132

8.6 Risk assessment output 138

8.7 Conclusions 139

8.8 References 139

9. Monitoring and verification 141
Charles Jenkins

9.1 Introduction 141

9.2 Designing a monitoring programme 142

9.3 Designing the Otway monitoring programme 144

9.4 Evaluation of monitoring techniques 148

9.5 Conclusions 151

9.6 References 152

10. 2D and 3D seismic investigations for Stages 1 and 2C 155
Boris Gurevich, Roman Pevzner, Milovan Urosevic, Anton Kepic, Valeriya Shulakova, Eva Caspari

10.1 Introduction 155

10.2 Modelling seismic response of injected CO2 in Stage 1 156

10.3 Modelling seismic response of CO2 leakage for 2C 158

10.4 Time-lapse repeatability in Stage 1 164

10.5 Time-lapse surface seismic monitoring for Stage 1 171

10.6 Downhole seismic methods for Stage 1 177

10.7 Laboratory studies of CO2 acoustic response as an adjunct to field studies 188

10.8 Conclusions 192

10.9 References 193

11. Seismic and microseismic monitoring 197
Tom Daley, Barry Freifeld, Tony Siggins

11.1 Introduction 197

11.2 High resolution travel time (HRTT) monitoring and offset VSP 197

11.3 Passive seismic monitoring 207

11.4 Microseismic monitoring using surface stations 209

11.5 Conclusions 215

11.6 References 216

12. Monitoring the geochemistry of reservoir fluids 217
Chris Boreham, Barry Freifeld, Dirk Kirste, Linda Stalker

12.1 Introduction 217

12.2 Sampling the Buttress-1 well 217

12.3 Sampling the CRC-1 injection well 218

12.4 Sampling the Naylor-1 monitoring well 220

12.5 Injecting tracers at the CRC-1 injection well 224

12.6 Analytical methods 228

12.7 Composition of hydrocarbons 232

12.8 Formation water composition and behaviour 240

12.9 Constraining CO2 breakthrough 241

12.10 In-reservoir behaviour of tracers 244

12.11 Liquid hydrocarbons 245

12.12 Solid hydrocarbons 245

12.13 Conclusions 247

12.14 References 248

13. Monitoring groundwaters 251
Patrice de Caritat, Allison Hortle, Dirk Kirste

13.1 Introduction 251

13.2 Monitoring groundwater level 252

13.3 Monitoring groundwater composition 253

13.4 Interpreting groundwater results 257

13.5 Groundwater composition 260

13.6 Operational issues relating to groundwater monitoring 261

13.7 Quality control 264

13.8 Conclusions 270

13.9 References 270

14. Soil gas monitoring 273
Ulrike Schacht

14.1 Introduction 273

14.2 Surficial geology 274

14.3 Soil gas sampling at Otway 274

14.4 Analysis of soil gas 275

14.5 Soil gas results 276

14.6 Interpretation of soil gas results 277

14.7 Conclusions 279

14.8 References 279

15. Atmospheric monitoring 281
David Etheridge, Ray Leuning, Ashok Luhar, Zoe Loh, Darren Spencer, Colin Allison, Paul Steele, Steve Zegelin, Charles Jenkins, Paul Krummel, Paul Fraser

15.1 Introduction 281

15.2 Sensitivity 282

15.3 Simulated emissions and monitoring design 282

15.4 Background CO2 283

15.5 Data filtering 288

15.6 Bayesian inverse modelling 289

15.7 Conclusions 290

15.8 References 291

16. Reservoir engineering for Stage 1 293
Jonathan Ennis-King, Lincoln Paterson

16.1 Introduction 293

16.2 Description of field data 293

16.3 Well history 297

16.4 Well locations 297

16.5 Well completions 297

16.6 Initial pre-production conditions 297

16.7 Initial fluid compositions 299

16.8 Production data 299

16.9 Post-production conditions 299

16.10 Composition of injected gas 300

16.11 Downhole pressure and temperature during injection 300

16.12 Tracer injection 301

16.13 Gas and tracer sampling 301

16.14 Post-injection conditions 302

16.15 Simulation approach 303

16.16 Dynamic modelling process 308

16.17 Pre-injection modelling results 310

16.18 Injection and post-injection modelling results 312

16.19 Dynamic storage capacity of a depleted gas field 322

16.20 Conclusions 323

16.21 References 324

17. CO2CRC Otway Stage 2B residual saturation and dissolution test 329
Lincoln Paterson, Chris Boreham, Mark Bunch, Tess Dance, Jonathan Ennis-King, Barry Freifeld, Ralf Haese, Charles Jenkins, Matthias Raab, Rajindar Singh, Linda Stalker

17.1 Introduction 329

17.2 Test concept 330

17.3 Injection target 332

17.4 Test sequence 334

17.5 Downhole completion 339

17.6 Measurements 342

17.7 Surface data 342

17.8 Thermal logging 345

17.9 Noble gas tracer tests 345

17.10 Testing phases 345

17.11 Downhole data (memory gauges) 347

17.12 Downhole data (permanent gauges) 347

17.13 Pulsed neutron logging 351

17.14 The organic tracer test 353

17.15 The dissolution test 357

17.16 Conclusions 358

17.17 References 360

18. What was learned from the Otway Project? 361
Peter Cook

18.1 Introduction 361

18.2 Organising a project 363

18.3 Managing a project 364

18.4 Funding a project 365

18.5 Project communications and collaboration 366

18.6 Regulating a project 366

18.7 Identifying a suitable project site 367

18.8 Deciding on project science 367

18.9 Deciding on project monitoring 368

18.10 Curating project data 370

18.11 Lessons for the future? 370

18.12 Conclusions 372

18.13 References 373

Index 375

“I recommend the text to engineers in the field already, or those contemplating CCS work, particularly those interested in cross chain integration and how stores and sources will have to dynamically react to each other.”  (TCE Today, 1 February  2015