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Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks

D. Hood

ISBN: 978-1-118-15606-3 March 2012 448 Pages

Description

Gigabit-capable passive optical networks (G-PON) have a large and increasing base of support among telecommunications operators around the world. Written by two of the experts in the field, this book explains G-PON in detail, both the original 2.5 Gb/s version and XG-PON, the 10 Gb/s second generation. The foundation established by this book is also invaluable in understanding NG2 (next-generation 2) G-PON, which is built upon a number of XG-PON systems on parallel wavelengths. As well as a history that clarifies the reasons for many of the existing features, the book looks at current and evolving technology and discusses some of the alternatives for future access networks.

Acknowledgments xi

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Target Audience 3

1.2 Evolution of G-PON Technology and Standards 3

2 System Requirements 9

2.1 G-PON Operation 10

2.2 ONU Types 13

2.3 Network Considerations 16

2.4 OLT Variations and Reach Extenders 26

2.5 ONU Powering 33

2.6 Technology Requirements 42

2.7 Management Requirements 44

2.8 Maintenance 46

3 Optical Layer 49

3.1 Introduction 50

3.2 Optical Fiber 54

3.3 Connectors and Splices 61

3.4 WDM Devices and Optical Filters 64

3.5 Passive Optical Splitters 67

3.6 Power Budget 71

3.7 Coexistence 77

3.8 Optical Transmitters 82

3.9 Optical Receivers 91

3.10 G-PON Transceiver Modules 106

3.11 Optical Amplifiers 113

3.12 Reach Extension 118

4 Transmission Convergence Layer 127

4.1 Framing 129

4.2 ONU Activation 166

4.3 ONU Transmission Timing and Equalization Delay 177

4.4 ONU Registration 187

4.5 ONU Energy Conservation 190

4.6 Security 200

5 Management 219

5.1 The Toolkit 219

5.2 Equipment Management 240

5.3 Reach Extender Management 249

5.4 PON Maintenance 252

5.5 Obsolete Fragments of Information Model 254

6 Services 255

6.1 Basic Ethernet Management 256

6.2 Multicast 275

6.3 Quality of Service 285

6.4 IP Services 303

6.5 POTS 306

6.6 Pseudowires 317

6.7 Digital Subscriber Line UNIs 333

6.8 RF Video 337

7 Other Technologies 339

7.1 Ethernet PON, EPON 340

7.2 Wireless Broadband 352

7.3 Copper 353

7.4 Ethernet, Point to Point 354

7.5 WDM PON 357

7.6 Access Migration 360

Appendix I – FEC and HEC in G-PON 363

I.1 Redundancy and Error Correction 363

I.2 Forward Error Correction 364

I.3 Hybrid Error Correction 374

Appendix II – PLOAM Messages 375

II.1. PLOAM Messages in G.987 XG-PON 375

II.2. PLOAM Messages in G.984 G-PON 388

References 403

International Telecommunications Union, Telecommunication Standardization Sector 403

Broadband Forum 405

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 405

Internet Engineering Task Force 406

Other 407

Acronyms 409

Index 423