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Global Livestock Health Policy: Challenges, Opportunties and Strategies for Effective Action

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Global Livestock Health Policy: Challenges, Opportunties and Strategies for Effective Action

Robert F. Kahrs

ISBN: 978-0-470-34477-4 May 2008 Wiley-Blackwell 336 Pages

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Description

Global Livestock Health Policy is designed to provide an understanding of the complexities of national and subnational animal and public health policies and how those policies impact domestic livestock industries. These policies shape domestic disease control programs, international trade, and food safety efforts.

This book offers public policy makers and animal health officials in government and industry a foundation on which to institute scientifically sound national and subnational animal health programs; solidify infrastructures; enhance communication between legislators, regulators, and affected parties; and expedite international agreements for safe worldwide movement of animals and animal products in a global free market economy.

Organized in eight free standing chapters which include case studies, a glossary and an epilogue, this arrangement leads readers progressively through the events and decisions underlying the present US and global animal health policy status, lays out challenges facing the US and other nations, describes the components of a credible and competitive animal health infrastructure, and puts forward strategies for achieving policies that are adaptable to global and domestic dynamics while addressing the multiple issues and interests bearing on animal health, animal welfare, and food safety. The case studies contain background information and questions for group discussions.

The book is intended for use by animal health officials; agribusiness leaders; commodity groups; financial institutions; legislators and their staffs; importers and exporters of animals, animal products, biologics and pharmaceuticals; leadership of the regulatory, academic and diagnostic sectors of the agricultural and veterinary communities; consumers; or anyone else interested in protection, production, processing, and distribution of animals and related products.

Acronyms xi

Preface xv

1. Livestock Health Policy: the Basics 3

Introduction 3

What Are Global Livestock Health Policies? 4

How Are Livestock Health Policies Developed? 4

Driving Forces and Framers of Livestock Health Policies 5

Elements of the Global Livestock Health Policy Hierarchy 9

International Livestock Health Policies 12

Administration of Livestock Health Policies 12

Communication of Livestock Health Policies 13

Broad-Based Constituencies and Complex Issues Create Challenges 13

Complex Interactions Among Science Politics and Culture 13

Livestock Health Information Sources 23

The Crucial Role of Communication in Livestock Health Polices 23

Bibliography 24

2. Twentieth Century Progress and Change in Livestock Health 25

Introduction 25

Changing Livestock Production and Management Systems 26

Advances in Livestock Breeding and Reproductive Efficiency 27

Advances in Diagnosis and Control of Metabolic Diseases 30

Advances in Diagnosis and Control of Toxicologic Diseases 31

Advances in Diagnosis and Control of Parasitic Diseases 32

Advances in Diagnosis and Control of Infectious Diseases 33

Emergence of Antimicrobials in Livestock Health 35

Advances in Immunology 40

Improved Vaccines for Livestock Diseases 41

Progress Toward Understanding Vector-Borne Diseases 45

Emergence of Growth Promotants 45

Mechanized Systems for Processing Meat Poultry and Dairy Products 48

Improvements in Refrigeration and Transportation of Perishable Foods 50

Importance of Animal Health to Livestock Profitability, Human Health and Food Safety 50

Twentieth Century Global Dynamics’ Impact on National Economies, Livestock Health and Human Health 51

Progress Produces Challenges and Presents Opportunities 52

Bibliography 52

3. Thirty Years That Shaped Livestock Health Policy 55

Introduction 55

Impact of Outbreaks of FMD 55

Appearance of the TSEs 60

Increasing Attention to Emerging Diseases 63

New Disease-Control and Eradication Campaigns 63

Growing Importance of Captive and Free-Ranging Wildlife to Livestock Health 64

Globalization Movement and Livestock Health Policies 66

Formation of the Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO)  67

Prerogatives Surrounding the WTO SPS Principles and International Standards 69

Growing Public Concern About Animal Welfare 69

Growing Consumer Concern About Food Safety 70

Growing Concern About the Environment 71

Application of Epidemiology and Risk Analysis to Livestock Health Disciplines 72

The Age of Information Technology (IT) 79

Emergence of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) 79

Bibliography 80

4. Components of Effective Livestock Health Infrastructures 83

Introduction 83

Regulatory Organization Authority and Responsibility 85

Establishing a Permanent Presence of Vigilant Livestock Owners and Veterinarians 85

Diagnostic Capacity 89

Diagnostic Laboratories in Exotic-Disease Exclusion 93

Disease-Control and Eradication Systems 93

Monitoring Surveillance and Reporting (MS&R) Systems 95

Credible International Livestock Health Reporting 101

Animal Health Information Systems 106

Animal Identification Systems 107

Biosecurity at National Borders Subnational Boundaries and Individual Properties 109

Emergency Livestock Disease Management 111

Oversight of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products 119

Linking the Private and Public Sectors of Livestock Health Activities 121

Academic and Diagnostic Communities in Livestock Health Infrastructures 128

User Fees and National Livestock Health Programs 128

Skillful Negotiators 129

Animal Science and Veterinary Medical Research Education and Outreach Programs 134

Broad-Based Livestock Health Partnerships 134

Livestock Health Organizations 135

External Reviews of National Livestock Health Infrastructures 135

Positive Media Relations 136

Summary 136

Bibliography 136

5. International Livestock Health Standards and Standard-Setting Organizations 139

Introduction 139

International Treaties Trade Agreements and Trading Blocs 140

International Standard-Setting Organizations 144

The WTO SPS Agreement 149

Dealing with Livestock Health Standards and Standard-Setting Organizations 163

Bibliography 165

6. Issues Surrounding Equitable Livestock Health Policies 167

Introduction 167

Objectives of Livestock Health Policies 168

Livestock Health Policies and the Welfare of Consumers 169

Livestock Health and Food Safety 169

Livestock Health Policies and the Well-Being of Livestock 171

Policies to Minimize the Impact of Domestic Livestock Diseases 172

Policies to Exclude Exotic Diseases 173

Assuring Safe and Effective Use of Livestock Drugs and Biologicals 174

Livestock Health Policies and the Prosperity of Livestock Owners and Associated Industries 174

Livestock Health Policies and Maintenance and Expansion of Global Markets 175

Characteristics of Competitive and Equitable Livestock Health Policies, 175

Developing Competitive and Equitable Livestock Health Policies 176

The Ever-Increasing Complexity of Livestock Health Policies 178

Governmental Administration of Livestock Health Policies 179

Legislative and Executive Authority Over Livestock Health Policies 182

Role of Special Interests 182

Use of Expert Panels 186

Positioning Compromise and Cooperation in Development of Livestock Health Policies 187

Bibliography 187

7. Challenges Facing Livestock Health in the Twenty-First Century 189

Introduction 189

Challenges in Food Safety 190

Protecting the Environment and Preserving Ecosystems 191

Potential Loss of the Cherished Small-Farm Lifestyle 192

Overcoming Public Concerns About GMOs 193

Challenges in Animal Welfare 194

Challenges in Deterring Terrorism 195

Challenges in Improving Management Practices 195

Challenges in Improving Monitoring Surveillance and Reporting (MS&R) 196

Challenges in Improving Animal Identification Systems 199

Challenges in Overcoming Increased Disease Risk of Confinement Operations 200

Gaining Support for Livestock Health Issues 201

Assuring the Safety Effectiveness and Availability of Animal Health Products 204

Addressing the Challenge of Global Food Distribution 205

Maintaining Support of Livestock Producers and Industry Organizations 205

Addressing Concerns of Opposition Groups 206

Balancing Legitimate Governmental Oversight With Excessive Central Control 206

Interacting Successfully With Varying Political and Cultural Viewpoints 206

Bibliography 208

8. A Look at the Future 209

Introduction 209

Predictable Twenty-First Century Trends 210

Unexpected Events and New Issues 210

Advancing Technology and Livestock Health Policies 211

Intensive Modernization of Livestock Production Practices 212

Changing Political and Cultural Dynamics 212

Changing Governmental Styles 214

Continued Resistance to Globalization 214

Concern With Emerging Diseases 215

Bioterrorism and Agroterrorism 215

Social and Environmental Expectations 216

Obligations and Challenges of National Leadership 216

Livestock Health: A Springboard to World Peace 216

International Egalitarianism and Resource Sharing 216

Public Perceptions and Scientific Uncertainty 217

Summary 217

Bibliography 218

9. Who Will Be the Leaders? 219

Introduction 219

Background of Leaders in Livestock Health 219

Leadership Skills and Abilities 220

Essential Communication Abilities and Skills 226

Interpersonal Skills 230

Running Effective Meetings 233

Who Will Be the Leaders? 234

Bibliography 234

10. Strategies for Effective Livestock Health Policy Action 237

Introduction 237

Foundation Stones of Livestock Health Policies 238

Building Blocks of Livestock Health Policies 244

Goals and Objectives of Livestock Health Policies 250

Seven Stages of Livestock Health Policy Development 251

Five-Tiered Hierarchy of Livestock Health Policy Development 253

Policy-Development Strategies 256

Effective Policy-Development Strategies 261

Major Categories of Livestock Health Policies 263

Strategies for Success in the New Global Economy 268

Summary 270

Bibliography 270

11. Discussion Topics 271

Introduction 271

Use of the Discussion Topics 271

Discussion Strategies 272

Discussion Topic 1: The European Union (EU) Beef Hormone Ban 273

Discussion Topic 2: Food-Safety Concerns in Integrated Agriculture 275

Discussion Topic 3: Animal Welfare Policies as Exclusionary Factors 278

Discussion Topic 4: Russian Importations of U.S. Poultry 280

Discussion Topic 5: The World Trade Organization (WTO) and National Sovereignty 285

Discussion Topic 6: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) and the Precautionary Principle 288

Discussion Topic 7: Mexican Cattle and Tuberculosis (TB) Control 290

Discussion Topic 8: Compulsory or Voluntary Disease Reporting 292

Discussion Topic 9: Pressures from Producer Organizations 294

Discussion Topic 10: Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) Eradication Policies 295

Glossary 299

Index 321