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Governance of Seas and Oceans



Governance of Seas and Oceans

André Monaco, Patrick Prouzet

ISBN: 978-1-119-24556-8 November 2015 Wiley-ISTE 318 Pages

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The governance of seas and oceans, defined as all forms of social participation in decision-making on the marine environment, is here mainly from a legal perspective view with the Law of the Sea as a determinant. The book presents the main aspects of maritime law and the history of its construction. The exploitation of living resources, minerals and marine energy reserves, maritime transport, marine ecosystems disturbance by a vessel traffic constantly increasing, are included.

Foreword xi

Chapter 1. Transformations in International Law of the Sea: Governance of the “Space” or “Resources”? 1

1.1. Introductory remarks 1

1.2. The importance of marine spaces in International Law of the sea 2

1.2.1. Definitions of International Law of the sea: a keystone of the governance of maritime spaces 2

1.2.2. Marine spaces considered by law: the interest of qualifying maritime zones 4

1.2.3. Development of legal control over certain marine spaces: a phenomenon both ancient and renewed 6

1.2.4. Maritime zones near and far from coasts: a distinction established between systems of sovereignty
and those of jurisdiction 9

1.3. Place accorded to resources located at sea in the International Law of the Sea 15

1.3.1. Separate treatment for non-living marine resources and fished living marine resources 15

1.3.2. Biological resources at the heart of the overlap between environmental law, biological diversity law, the Law of the Sea and fishing law 20

1.3.3. Indirect treatment of resources through ecosystem quality conservation policies 29

1.4. Conclusion 33

1.5. Bibliography 34

Chapter 2. The Governance of the International Shipping Traffic by Maritime Law 39
Cécile DE CET BERTIN and Arnaud MONTAS

2.1. Introduction 39

2.1.1. Meaning and definition of maritime law 40

2.1.2. Fundamental principles of maritime law 40

2.1.3. General sources of maritime law 41

2.2. Legal instruments of governance: institutions and sources of maritime transport law 45

2.2.1. Development of international regulations 46

2.2.2. European maritime transport regulations 56

2.3. Legal results of governance: maritime contracts 61

2.3.1. Maritime chartering contracts 61

2.3.2. Maritime transport contracts 63

2.3.3. Maritime insurance 69

2.4. Bibliography 75

Chapter 3. Marine Pollution: Introduction to International Law on Pollution Caused by Ships 77
Véronique LABROT

3.1. Introduction 77

3.2. Preventing pollution by ships 79

3.2.1. Spatial preconditions: acknowledgment of protected maritime zones 79

3.2.2. Safe routes: the organization of maritime traffic in question 83

3.2.3. Clean routes: design and management of the ships in question 86

3.3. Intervention in the event of accidents or risk of accidents 94

3.3.1. Preparedness via the OPRC convention 95

3.3.2. From the 1969 IMO convention on intervention to article 221 of UNCLOS 96

3.4. Reparations in the event of damage caused by pollution 98

3.4.1. The prioritizing of reparations for pollution by hydrocarbons 98

3.4.2. The IMO Civil Liability Convention and FIPOL 1992 100

3.5. Bibliography 105

Chapter 4. Management and Sustainable Exploitation of Marine Living Resources 107
Annie CUDENNEC and Olivier CURTIL

4.1. European policy on the sustainable exploitation of marine living resources 107

4.1.1. The European Union and the sustainable exploitation of marine living resources: a long and complicated history 108

4.1.2. Fundamental principles of common fisheries policy 116

4.1.3. Definition of an economic framework for sustainable exploitation of marine biological resources 126

4.2. French policy on sustainable exploitation of marine living resources 134

4.2.1. Fundamental principles of French policy 135

4.2.2. Instruments of French fishery policy 148

4.3. Bibliography 157

Chapter 5. Marine Renewable Energies: Main Legal Issues 159

5.1. Introduction 159

5.2. French policy for the development of marine renewable energies: foundations and instruments 162

5.2.1. The international and European foundations for the development of renewable energies 162

5.2.2. The planned and scheduled development of MRE 168

5.3. The gradual development of a legal framework for ocean renewable energy 177

5.3.1. Access to the marine renewable energies market 177

5.3.2. A legal framework that leads to many uncertainties 192

5.4. Conclusion 198

5.5. Bibliography 199

Chapter 6. Socio-economic Evaluation of Marine Protected Areas 203
Frédérique ALBAN, Jean BONCOEUR and Jean-Baptiste MARRE

6.1. Introduction 203

6.2. Methods 207

6.2.1. Project analysis methods 207

6.2.2. Methods for measuring non-market values 212

6.2.3. Bioeconomic models 217

6.3. Difficulties and adaptations 221

6.3.1. Difficulties in measuring non-market values 221

6.3.2. Difficulties in implementing operational bioeconomic models of MPAs 224

6.4. Use of socio-economic evaluation of MPAs in practice 227

6.5. Bibliography 230

Chapter 7. Integrated Management of Seas and coastal areas in the Age of Globalization 235

7.1. Introduction 235

7.2. The context for integrated management practices 236

7.2.1. From coastal heritage to the planet ocean 236

7.2.2. A forward-thinking international impetus 239

7.2.3. How do coastal and maritime areas lend themselves to the globalization game? 241

7.2.4. The third forgotten path: common pool resources 242

7.3. The ecosystem approach: dynamic interactions between societies and ecosystems 245

7.4. Multi-dimensionality and expertise 249

7.5. Linkage of scales and concepts 252

7.6. Where do we stand on integrated management of the sea and coastal areas? 254

7.6.1. Climate change, destitution and the increased vulnerability of ecosystems 254

7.6.2. Persistent poverty and inequality in many parts of the world 255

7.6.3. Increasing threat of insecurity 256

7.6.4. Impacts of the global financial crisis 256

7.6.5. Unfair trade of marine products, the absence of capabilities and effective structures for the
redistribution of benefits 257

7.7. Toward new challenges and new forms of governance 258

7.7.1. National strategies for integrated management of the sea and coastal areas 260

7.7.2. Implementation of the ecosystem approach for integrated management of areas beyond national jurisdictions 268

7.7.3. Hurdles to overcome 270

7.7.4. Size and limits of global expertise 272

7.8. Conclusion 273

7.9. Appendix: some proposals for global governance of seas and coastal areas 275

7.9.1. Strategic requirements at national and local levels 275

7.9.2. Strategic orientations at a regional level 276

7.9.3. Strategic operations for areas outside of national jurisdiction 276

7.10. Bibliography 277

Chapter 8. Ocean Industry Leadership and Collaboration in Sustainable Development of the Seas 281

8.1. Ocean industry sustainability: challenges and opportunities 281

8.2. Status and trends in economic use of marine space and resources 282

8.2.1. Shipping 283

8.2.2. Offshore oil and gas 284

8.2.3. Fisheries 286

8.2.4. Aquaculture 287

8.2.5. Offshore wind and ocean energy 288

8.2.6. Marine, coastal and cruise tourism 289

8.3. Catalyzing international ocean business leadership and collaboration 290

8.4. Smart oceans–smart industries: industry leadership to build ocean knowledge 292

8.5. Ocean industry leadership and collaboration for a sustainable ocean future 295

8.6. Bibliography 295

List of Authors 297

Index 299