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Grapevine in a Changing Environment: A Molecular and Ecophysiological Perspective

Grapevine in a Changing Environment: A Molecular and Ecophysiological Perspective

Hernâni Gerós, Maria Manuela Chaves, Hipolito Medrano Gil, Serge Delrot

ISBN: 978-1-118-73598-5

Mar 2016, Wiley-Blackwell

400 pages

Description

Grapes (Vitis spp.) are economically the most important fruit species in the world. Over the last decades many scientific advances have led to understand more deeply key physiological, biochemical, and molecular aspects of grape berry maturation. However, our knowledge on how grapevines respond to environmental stimuli and deal with biotic and abiotic stresses is still fragmented. Thus, this area of research is wide open for new scientific and technological advancements. Particularly, in the context of climate change, viticulture will have to adapt to higher temperatures, light intensity and atmospheric CO2 concentration, while water availability is expected to decrease in many viticultural regions, which poses new challenges to scientists and producers.

With Grapevine in a Changing Environment, readers will benefit from a comprehensive and updated coverage on the intricate grapevine defense mechanisms against biotic and abiotic stress and on the new generation techniques that may be ultimately used to implement appropriate strategies aimed at the production and selection of more adapted genotypes. The book also provides valuable references in this research area and original data from several laboratories worldwide.

Written by 63 international experts on grapevine ecophysiology, biochemistry and molecular biology, the book is a reference for a wide audience with different backgrounds, from plant physiologists, biochemists and graduate and post-graduate students, to viticulturists and enologists.

List of contributors x

1 Grapevines in a changing environment: a global perspective 1
Gregory V. Jones

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 Climate suitability for viticulture and wine production 4

1.3 Climate change and variability 6

1.4 Environmental impacts on viticulture and wine production 8

1.5 Conclusions 12

References 13

2 The ups and downs of environmental impact on grapevines: future challenges in temperate viticulture 18
H.R. Schultz and M. Hofmann

2.1 Introduction 19

2.2 Variability and trends in evapotranspiration  and precipitation – global is ≠ regional 20

2.3 Variability and trends in plant water status globally and regionally 24

2.4 The underground risk of variability affecting above ground quality 27

2.5 The CO2 problem 29

References 32

3 Drought and water management in Mediterranean vineyards 38
O. Zarrouk, J.M. Costa, R. Francisco, C. Lopes and M.M. Chaves

3.1 Introduction 39

3.2 Varietal adaptation to water scarcity and heat stress 40

3.3 Deficit irrigation – a tool to increase transpiration efficiency and control grapevine and berry growth/development 43

3.4 Soil management practices 47

3.5 Impact of deficit irrigation on berry metabolism 50

References 59

4 Rootstocks as a component of adaptation to environment 68
N. Ollat, A. Peccoux (deceased), D. Papura, D. Esmenjaud, E. Marguerit, J.‐P. Tandonnet, L. Bordenave, S.J. Cookson, F. Barrieu, L. Rossdeutsch, J. Lecourt, V. Lauvergeat, P. Vivin, P.‐F. Bert and S. Delrot

4.1 Introduction 69

4.2 Main components of root architecture and morphology 71

4.3 Rootstock as a key component to cope with pests 72

4.4 Contribution of rootstocks to drought responses 78

4.5 Rootstocks to cope with salinity 86

4.6 Iron chlorosis and rootstocks 88

4.7 Concluding remarks 93

Acknowledgements 93

References 94

5 Carbon balance in grapevine under a changing climate 109
H. Medrano, J. Perez Peña, J. Prieto, M. Tomás, N. Franck and J.M. Escalona

5.1 General introduction 110

5.2 Grapevine carbon balance as an integration of different physiological processes: main components of carbon fluxes 111

5.3 How to measure the plant carbon balance 114

5.4 Environment and genotype affect whole plant carbon fluxes 123

5.5 Whole plant carbon fluxes and carbon footprint calculation 126

5.6 Future challenges 127

Acknowledgements 127

References 128

6 Embolism formation and removal in grapevines: a phenomenon affecting hydraulics and transpiration upon water stress 135
Sara Tramontini and Claudio Lovisolo

6.1 Introduction 136

6.2 Organs affected 137

6.3 Spread and recovery 138

6.4 Genotype effect 141

6.5 Conclusions 143

Acknowledgements 143

References 143

7 Grapevine under light and heat stresses 148
Alberto Palliotti and Stefano Poni

7.1 Introduction 149

7.2 Light and heat stresses: excess 150

7.3 Effects of light and heat stress on morphostructural and biochemical characteristics at leaf and shoot level 151

7.4 Effects of light and heat stress on physiological behaviour 154

7.5 Effects of light and heat stress on vine yield and grape composition 162

7.6 Energy dissipation mechanisms 164

7.7 Protective strategies 166

7.8 Conclusions 169

Acknowledgements 170

References 171

8 Remote sensing and other imaging technologies to monitor grapevine performance 179
Hamlyn G. Jones and Olga M. Grant

8.1 Introduction 180

8.2 Sensor technologies 181

8.3 Deployment of sensors 189

8.4 Applications 190

8.5 Concluding comments 195

References 196

9 Boron stress in grapevine: current developments and future prospects 202
Carlos Meyer‐Regueiro, Rudolf Schlechter, Carmen Espinoza, Alejandro Bisquertt, Felipe Aquea and Patricio Arce‐Johnson

9.1 Introduction 203

9.2 Function of boron in plants 205

9.3 Stress triggered by boron in grapevine 207

9.4 Uptake and transport mechanisms of boron in plants 209

9.5 Grapevine boron transporters VvBOR 212

9.6 Conclusion and outlook 218

Acknowledgements 219

References 219

10 Berry response to water light and heat stresses 223
Jérémy Pillet, Mariam Berdeja, Le Guan and Serge Delrot

10.1 Introduction 224

10.2 Berry composition 225

10.3 Abiotic stress and grapevine physiology 233

10.4 Abiotic stress in grapevine berry and its impact on berry quality 236

10.5 Concluding remarks 245

Acknowledgements 246

References 246

11 Grapevine responses to low temperatures 258
Mélodie Sawicki, Cédric Jacquard, Christophe Clément, Essaïd Aït Barka and Nathalie Vaillant‐Gaveau

11.1 Introduction 259

11.2 Distribution and acclimation 260

11.3 Modifications to plant cell membranes 260

11.4 Formation of ice 261

11.5 Photosynthesis and photosynthesis‐related pigments 262

11.6 Calcium and cold temperatures 264

11.7 Cold‐mediated transcription regulation 265

11.8 Expression of pathogenesis‐related genes and synthesis of antifreeze proteins 266

11.9 Changes in phytohormone metabolism 266

11.10 Cold‐induced osmolites/osmoprotectants 267

11.11 Effect on reproductive organs 270

11.12 Effect of microorganisms on cold tolerance in grapevine 271

11.13 Conclusion 272

Acknowledgements 272

References 272

12 Metabolic rearrangements in grapevine response to salt stress 279
Artur Conde, R. Breia, J. Moutinho‐Pereira, Jérôme Grimplet and Hernâni Gerós

12.1 Introduction 280

12.2 NaCl toxicity and irrigation and cultivar dependency 281

12.3 Metabolic readjustments in response to salt stress 284

12.4 Conclusions and future perspectives 291

Acknowledgements 292

References 293

13 Copper stress in grapevine 299
Viviana Martins, António Teixeira, Mohsen Hanana, Eduardo Blumwald and Hernâni Gerós

13.1 Introduction 300

13.2 Grapevine diseases and copper‐based fungicides 301

13.3 Effect of copper in grapevine physiology and mineral balance 301

13.4 Intracellular accumulation of copper in grape cells 304

13.5 Effect of copper in grapevine metabolism and in grape berry composition 307

13.6 Effect of copper in soil and berry microbiome 309

13.7 Effect of copper in fermentation and wine quality 311

13.8 Conclusions 313

Acknowledgements 313

References 313

14 Grapevine abiotic and biotic stress genomics and identification of stress markers 320
Jérôme Grimplet

14.1 Introduction 321

14.2 Abiotic stress 323

14.3 Biotic stress 333

14.4 Conclusions 339

Acknowledgements 339

References 339

15 Exploiting Vitis genetic diversity to manage with stress 347
Pablo Carbonell‐Bejerano, Luisa Cristina de Carvalho, José Eduardo Eiras Dias, José M. Martínez‐Zapater and Sara Amâncio

15.1 Introduction 348

15.2 Grapevine diversity 348

15.3 Grapevine responses and adaptation to stressful conditions 351

15.4 Breeding strategies to manage with stress 357

15.5 Conclusions 368

Acknowledgements 369

References 369

Index 381