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Graphene Materials: Fundamentals and Emerging Applications

Graphene Materials: Fundamentals and Emerging Applications

Ashutosh Tiwari, Mikael Syväjärvi

ISBN: 978-1-119-13181-6

Apr 2015

424 pages

$200.95

Description

Graphene Materials: Fundamentals and Emerging Applications brings together innovative methodologies with research and development strategies to provide a detailed state-of-the-art overview of the processing, properties, and technology developments of graphene materials and their wide-ranging applications. The applications areas covered are biosensing, energy storage, environmental monitoring, and health.

 

The book discusses the various methods that have been developed for the preparation and functionalization of single-layered graphene nanosheets. These form the essential building blocks for the bottom-up architecture of various graphene materials because they possess unique physico-chemical properties such as large surface areas, good conductivity and mechanical strength, high thermal stability and desirable flexibility. The electronic behavior in graphene, such as dirac fermions obtained due to the interaction with the ions of the lattice, has led to the discovery of novel miracles like Klein tunneling in carbon-based solid state systems and the so-called half-integer quantum Hall effect. The combination of these properties makes graphene a highly desirable material for applications.

 

In particular, Graphene Materials: Fundamentals and Emerging Applications has chapters covering:

•             Graphene and related two-dimensional nanomaterials

•             Surface functionalization of graphene

•             Functional three-dimensional graphene networks

•             Covalent graphene-polymer nanocomposites

•             Magnesium matrix composites reinforced with graphene nanoplatelets

•             Graphene derivatives for energy storage

•             Graphene nanocomposite for high performance supercapacitors

•             Graphene nanocomposite-based bulk hetro-junction solar cells

•             Graphene bimetallic nanocatalysts foam for energy storage and biosensing

•             Graphene  nanocomposites-based for electrochemical sensors

•             Graphene electrodes for health and environmental monitoring

Preface xv

Foreword by Rosita Yakimova xix

Part 1: Fundamentals of Graphene and Graphene-Based Nanocomposites 1

1 Graphene and Related Two-Dimensional Materials 3
Manas Mandal, Anirban Maitra, Tanya Das and Chapal Kumar Das

1.1 Introduction 4

1.2 Preparation of Graphene Oxide by Modified Hummer’s Method 6

1.3 Dispersion of Graphene Oxide in Organic Solvents 6

1.4 Paper-like Graphene Oxide 7

1.5 Thin Films of Graphene Oxide and Graphene 7

1.6 Nanocomposites of Graphene Oxide 8

1.7 Graphene-Based Materials 9

1.8 Graphene-like 2D Materials 10

1.8.1 Tungsten Sulfide 10

1.8.2 Molybdenum Sulfide 14

1.8.3 Tin Sulfide 15

1.8.4 Tin Selenide 17

1.8.5 Manganese Dioxide 17

1.8.6 Nickel Oxide 18

1.8.7 Boron Nitride 19

1.9 Conclusion 20

References 20

2 Surface Functionalization of Graphene 25
Mojtaba Bagherzadeh and Anahita Farahbakhsh

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 Noncovalent Functionalization of Graphene 27

2.3 Covalent Functionalization of Graphene 34

2.3.1 Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction 34

2.3.2 Electrophilic Substitution Reaction 41

2.3.3 Condensation Reaction 42

2.3.4 Addition Reaction 50

2.4 Graphene–Nanoparticles 51

2.4.1 Metals NPs: Au, Pd, Pt, Ag 54

2.4.2 Metal oxide NPs: ZnO, SnO2, TiO2, SiO2,RuO2, Mn3O4, Co3O4, and Fe3O4 54

2.4.3 Semiconducting NPs: CdSe, CdS, ZnS, CdTe and Graphene QD 56

2.5 Conclusion 58

References 58

3 Architecture and Applications of Functional Th ree-dimensional Graphene Networks 67
Ramendra Sundar Dey and Qijin Chi

3.1 Introduction 68

3.1.1 Synthesis of 3D Porous Graphene-Based Materials 69

3.1.2 Overview of 3DG Structures 73

3.2 Applications 77

3.2.1 Supercapacitor 77

3.2.2 Fuel Cells 91

3.2.3 Sensors 92

3.2.4 Other Applications 93

3.3 Summary, Conclusion, Outlook 93

Abbreviations 94

References 94

4 Covalent Graphene-Polymer Nanocomposites 101
Horacio J. Salavagione

4.1 Introduction 101

4.2 Properties of Graphene for Polymer Reinforcement 102

4.3 Graphene and Graphene-like Materials 103

4.4 Methods of Production 104

4.5 Chemistry of Graphene 108

4.6 Conventional Graphene Based Polymer Nanocomposites 109

4.7 Covalent Graphene-polymer Nanocomposites 112

4.8 Grafting-From Approaches 114

4.8.1 Living Radical Polymerizations 115

4.8.2 Other Approaches 123

4.9 Grafting-to Approaches 126

4.9.1 Graphene Oxide-based Chemistry 127

4.9.2 Crosslinking Reactions 130

4.9.3 Click Chemistry 131

4.9.4 Other Grafting-to Approaches 137

4.10 Conclusions 140

References 141

Part 2: Emerging Applications of Graphene in Energy, Health, Environment and Sensors 151

5 Magnesium Matrix Composites Reinforced with Graphene Nanoplatelets 153
Muhammad Rashad, Fusheng Pan and Muhammad Asif

5.1 Introduction 154

5.1.1 Magnesium 154

5.1.2 Metal Matrix Composites 154

5.1.3 Graphene Nanoplatelets (GNPs) 155

5.2 Effect of Graphene Nanoplatelets on Mechanical Properties of Pure Magnesium 156

5.2.1 Introduction 156

5.2.2 Synthesis 157

5.2.3 Microstructural Characterization 157

5.2.4 Crystallographic Texture Measurements 158

5.2.5 Mechanical Characterization 160

5.2.6 Conclusions 163

5.3 Synergetic Effect of Graphene Nanoplatelets (GNPs) and Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube (MW-CNTs) on Mechanical Properties of Pure Magnesium 164

5.3.1 Introduction 164

5.3.2 Synthesis 165

5.3.3 Microstructure Characterization 166

5.3.4 Mechanical Characterization 169

5.3.5 Conclusions 174

5.4 Effect of Graphene Nanoplatelets (GNPs) Addition on Strength and Ductility of Magnesium-Titanium Alloys 175

5.4.1 Introduction 175

5.4.2 Synthesis 176

5.4.3 Microstructure Characterization 176

5.4.4 Mechanical Characterization 178

5.4.5 Conclusions 179

5.5 Effect of Graphene Nanoplatelets on Tensile Properties of Mg–1%Al–1%Sn Alloy 180

5.5.1 Introduction 180

5.5.2 Synthesis 180

5.5.3 Microstructure Characterization 180

5.5.4 Mechanical Characterization 181

5.5.5 Conclusions 184

Acknowledgments 184

References 185

6 Graphene and Its Derivatives for Energy Storage 191
Malgorzata Aleksandrzak and Ewa Mijowska

6.1 Introduction 191

6.2 Graphene in Lithium Batteries 192

6.2.1 Lithium Ion Batteries 193

6.2.2 Lithium-Oxygen Batteries 201

6.2.3 Lithium-Sulfur Batteries 206

6.3 Graphene in Supercapacitors 212

6.4 Summary 218

References 218

7 Graphene-Polypyrrole Nanocomposite: An Ideal Electroactive Material for High Performance Supercapacitors 225
Alagiri Mani, Khosro Zangene Kamali, Alagarsamy Pandikumar, Lim Yee Seng, Lim Hong Ngee and Huang Nay Ming

7.1 Introduction 226

7.2 Renewable Energy Sources 226

7.3 Importance of Energy Storage 227

7.4 Supercapacitors 228

7.5 Principle and Operation of Supercapacitiors 228

7.6 Electrode Materials for Supercapacitors 230

7.7 Graphene-based Supercapacitors and Th eir Limitations 231

7.8 Graphene-Polymer-Composite-based Supercapacitors 232

7.9 Graphene-Polypyrrole Nanocomposite-based Supercapacitiors 233

7.10 Fabrication of Graphene-Polypyrrole Nanocomposite for Supercapacitiors 233

7.11 Performance of Graphene-Polypyrrole Nanocomposite-based Supercapacitors 239

7.12 Summary and Outlooks 240

References 243

8 Hydrophobic ZnO Anchored Graphene Nanocomposite Based Bulk Hetro-junction Solar Cells to Improve Short Circuit Current Density 245
Rajni Sharma, Firoz Alam, A.K. Sharma, V. Dutta and S.K. Dhawan

8.1 Introduction 246

8.2 Economic Expectations of OPV 248

8.3 Device Architecture 253

8.3.1 Bulk-heterojunction Structure 252

8.4 Operational Principles 253

8.4.1 Series and Shunt Resistance 255

8.4.2 Standard Test Conditions 256

8.5 Experimental procedure for synthesis of hydrophobic nanomaterials 258

8.5.1 Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles 258

8.5.2 ZnO Nanoparticle Decorated Graphene (Z@G) Nanocomposite 259

8.6 Characterization of Synthesized ZnO Nanoparticles and ZnO Decorated Graphene (Z@G) Nanocomposite 259

8.6.1 Structural Analysis 259

8.6.2 Morphological Analysis 260

8.6.3 Optical Analysis 262

8.6.4 FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) Spectroscopy 263

8.6.5 Raman Spectroscopy 265

8.6.6 Hydrophobicity Measurement 266

8.7 Hybrid Solar Cell Fabrication and Characterization 267

8.7.1 Device Fabrication 267

8.7.2 J-V (Current density-Voltage) Characteristics 267

8.8. Conclusion 272

Acknowledgement 273

References 273

9 Three-dimensional Graphene Bimetallic Nanocatalysts Foam for Energy Storage and Biosensing 277
Chih-Chien Kung, Liming Dai, Xiong Yu and Chung-Chiun Liu

9.1 Background and Introduction 278

9.1.1 Biosensors 278

9.1.2 Fuel Cells 280

9.1.3 Bimetallic Nanocatalysts 282

9.1.4 Carbon Supported Materials 282

9.1.5 Rotating Disk Electrode 284

9.1.6 Cyclic Voltammetry and Chronoamperometric Techniques 286

9.1.7 Methods of Estimating Limit of Detection (LOD) 288

9.1.8 CO Stripping for the Estimation of the Catalyst Surface Area 288

9.1.9 Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) Measurement 288

9.1.10 Motivations of the Study 289

9.2 Preparation and Characterization of Three Dimensional Graphene Foam Supported Platinum-Ruthenium Bimetallic Nanocatalysts for Hydrogen Peroxide Based Electrochemical Biosensors 290

9.2.1 Introduction 290

9.2.2 Experimental 291

9.2.3 Results and Discussion 294

9.2.4 Conclusion for H2O2 Detection in Biosensing 307

9.3 Three dimensional graphene Foam Supported Platinum–Ruthenium Bimetallic Nanocatalysts for Direct Methanol and Direct Ethanol Fuel Cell Applications 307

9.3.1 Introduction 308

9.3.2 Experimental 309

9.3.3 Results and Discussion 311

9.3.4 Conclusion for Methanol and Ethanol Oxidation Reactions in Energy Storage 319

9.4 Conclusions 319

Acknowledgments 320

References 320

10 Electrochemical Sensing and Biosensing Platforms Using Graphene and Graphene-based Nanocomposites 325
Sandeep Kumar Vashist and John H.T. Luong

10.1 Introduction 326

10.2 Fabrication of Graphene and Its Derivatives 328

10.2.1 Exfoliation 328

10.2.2 Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) 330

10.2.3 Miscellaneous Techniques 331

10.3 Properties of Graphene and Its Derivatives 332

10.4 Electrochemistry of Graphene 333

10.5 Graphene and Graphene-Based Nanocomposites as Electrode Materials 335

10.6 Electrochemical Sensing/Biosensing 336

10.6.1 Glucose 336

10.6.2 DNA/Proteins/Cells 341

10.6.3 Other Small Electroactive Analytes 344

10.7 Challenges and Future Trends 347

References 351

11 Applications of Graphene Electrodes in Health and Environmental Monitoring 361
Georgia-Paraskevi Nikoleli, Susana Campuzano, José M. Pingarrón and Dimitrios P. Nikolelis

11.1 Biosensors Based on Nanostructured Materials 362

11.2 Graphene Nanomaterials Used in Electrochemical (bio) Sensors Fabrication 363

11.3 Miniaturized Graphene Nanostructured Biosensors for Health Monitoring 365

11.3.1 Graphene in Bio-field-eff ect Transistors 365

11.3.2 Graphene Impedimetric Biosensors 367

11.3.3 Graphene in Electrochemical Biosensors 368

11.4 Miniaturized Graphene Nanostructured Biosensors for Environmental Monitoring 377

11.4.1 Detection of Toxic Gases in Air 377

11.4.2 Detection of Heavy Metal Ions 379

11.4.3 Detection of Organic Pollutants 381

11.5 Conclusions and Future Prospects 384

Acknowledgements 386

References 386

Index 393