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Graphene Technology: From Laboratory to Fabrication

Graphene Technology: From Laboratory to Fabrication

Soroush Nazarpour (Editor), Stephen R. Waite (Editor)

ISBN: 978-3-527-68755-8

Jun 2016

232 pages

$164.99

Description

Filling the gap between publications for industrial developers and academic researchers on graphene synthesis and its applications, this book presents the essential aspects for the successful upscaling of graphene production.
After an introduction to graphene, its synthesis and characterization, the text covers a wide variety of graphene composites and compounds. The larger part of the book discusses various applications where graphene has been successfully integrated into technologies, including uses in the energy sector, oil and gas industry, biomedical areas, sensors and coatings. Finally, the book concludes with a summary and a look at the future of graphene technology, including a market review.
With its focus on applications, this is equally useful for both academic and industrial users.

List of Contributors IX

1 Graphene Technology: The Nanomaterials Road Ahead 1
Stephen R. Waite and Soroush Nazarpour

1.1 Newly Discovered 2D Materials 1

1.2 Wonder Materials 2

1.3 The Rise of MPM 5

1.4 Addressing the Environment, Health, and Safety 7

1.5 The Nanomaterials Road Ahead 7

1.6 Can Graphene Survive the “Disillusionment” Downturn? 9

1.6.1 Gartner’s Hype Cycle 9

1.6.2 Surviving the Trough of Disillusionment 10

1.6.3 Graphene and Batteries 11

1.6.4 Heat Management with Graphene 13

1.6.5 How Graphene Could Revolutionize 3D Printing 14

2 Graphene Synthesis 19
Siegfried Eigler

2.1 Introduction 19

2.2 Definitions 20

2.2.1 Nomenclature and Structure 20

2.2.2 Polydispersity of Graphene 20

2.3 Characterization of Graphene by Raman Spectroscopy 22

2.4 Epitaxial Growth of Graphene from SiC 26

2.5 Graphene by Chemical-Vapor-Deposition 27

2.6 Delamination of Graphene from Graphite 31

2.6.1 Mechanical Cleavage of Graphite 32

2.6.2 Liquid Phase Exfoliation of Graphite – Stirred Media Mills 33

2.6.3 Liquid Phase Exfoliation of Graphite – Sonication 35

2.6.4 Liquid Phase Exfoliation of Graphite – Shear Mixing 36

2.6.5 Liquid Phase Exfoliation of Graphite Using Smart Surfactants 38

2.6.6 Electrochemical Exfoliation of Graphite 38

2.7 Wet-Chemical Functionalization and Defunctionalization 40

2.7.1 Reductive Functionalization of Graphene 40

2.7.2 Oxidative Functionalization of Graphene 43

2.7.2.1 Generalized Synthesis of GO 45

2.7.2.2 Historical Development of the Synthesis of GrO 46

2.7.2.3 Structure of GO 48

2.7.2.4 GO as Precursor for Graphene 49

2.8 Synthesis of Nanographene from Small Molecules 52

References 57

3 Graphene Composites 63
Suman Chhetri, Tapas Kuila, and Naresh Chandra Murmu

3.1 Introduction 63

3.2 Preparation and Properties of Graphene 65

3.3 Functionalization of Graphene 66

3.3.1 Covalent Modification 67

3.3.2 Non-Covalent Modification 70

3.4 Preparation of Graphene Polymer Composites 71

3.4.1 In Situ Polymerization 71

3.4.2 Solution Mixing 72

3.4.3 Melt Mixing 72

3.4.4 Other Preparative Technique 73

3.5 Characterization of Graphene-Polymer Composites 74

3.6 Properties of Graphene/Polymer Composites 77

3.6.1 Mechanical Properties 77

3.6.2 Thermal Properties 84

3.6.3 Electrical Properties 88

3.6.4 Dynamic Mechanical Properties 93

3.7 Application of Graphene Based Polymer Composites 94

3.7.1 Gas Barrier 95

3.7.2 Sensor 97

3.7.3 EMI Shielding 97

3.7.4 Flammability Reduction 99

3.7.5 Automotive and Aircrafts 99

3.7.6 Turbine Blades 100

3.7.7 Others 100

3.8 Conclusions and Outlook 101

References 102

4 Graphene in Lithium-ion Batteries 113
Cyrus Zamani

4.1 Introduction 113

4.2 Renewable Energies 114

4.3 Batteries,What are They? 115

4.4 Lithium-ion Batteries 116

4.5 Anodes, Cathodes, and Electrolytes 117

4.6 Carbon Materials 118

4.7 Graphite 119

4.8 Graphene 120

4.9 Graphene in Lithium-Ion Batteries 121

4.10 Graphene in Anodes 122

4.11 Graphene in Cathodes 126

4.12 Graphene in Other Types of Lithium Batteries 127

Summary 127

References 128

5 Graphene-Based Membranes for Separation Engineering 133
Luisa M. Pastrana-Martínez, Sergio Morales-Torres, José L. Figueiredo, and Adrián M.T. Silva

5.1 Introduction 133

5.2 Preparation of Graphene-Based Membranes 134

5.3 Graphene-based Membranes for Separation Applications 140

5.3.1 Gas Separation 140

5.3.2 Water Treatment 142

5.4 Conclusions 149

Acknowledgments 150

References 150

6 Graphene Coatings for the Corrosion Protection of Base Metals 155
Robert V. Dennis, Nathan A. Fleer, Rachel D. Davidson, and Sarbajit Banerjee

6.1 Introduction to Corrosion 155

6.2 Bare Graphene as a Protective Barrier 159

6.2.1 Some Electronic Structure Considerations at Graphene/Metal Interfaces 159

6.2.2 Graphene as a Standalone Corrosion-Resistant Coating and Some Mechanistic Considerations 162

6.3 Graphene Nanocomposites for Corrosion Inhibition 164

6.4 Graphene/Metal Nanocomposites for Corrosion Inhibition 168

6.5 Graphene/Ceramic Nanocomposites for Corrosion Inhibition 171

6.6 Summary and Future Outlook 172

Acknowledgments 173

References 174

7 Graphene Market Review 177
Marko Spasenovic

7.1 Introduction 177

7.2 Graphene Market: Past and Present 178

7.3 Co-ordinated Market Initiatives 184

7.4 Market and Application Projections 185

7.5 Conclusion 186

References 187

8 Financing Graphene Ventures 189
Stephen R. Waite

8.1 Graphene Start-ups 190

8.2 The Art of Raising Capital 191

8.3 Shifting Financial Landscape for Graphene Ventures 199

8.4 The Graphene Financing Road Ahead 203

Summary 205

Appendix Nantero Case Study – The Funding and Evolution of a Nanomaterials Start-up 206

The Founding of Nantero 207

Series A: Financing Round 207

Post-Series A: Funding Evolution 208

Series B: Financing Round 208

Post-Series B: Funding Evolution 209

Series C: Financing Round 210

Post-Series C: Funding Evolution 210

Series D: Financing Round 212

Post-Series D: Funding Evolution 212

Series E: Financing Round 212

Summary 213

Index 215