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Green Materials for Electronics

Green Materials for Electronics

Mihai Irimia-Vladu (Editor), Eric D. Glowacki (Editor), Niyazi S. Sariciftci (Editor), Siegfried Bauer (Editor)

ISBN: 978-3-527-69296-5

Sep 2017

206 pages

$164.99

Description

Combining the materials science, technological, and device aspects of organic bioelectronics based on green materials, this is the first overview of the emerging concepts involving fabrication techniques for sustainable electronics with low energy and material consumption.
With contributions from top-notch editors and authors, in one focus, the book covers a collection of natural materials suited for electronics applications such as paper, silk, melanin, DNA and nucleobases, resins, gums, saccharides, cellulose, gelatine and peptides. In another thrust, the book focuses on device fabrication based on these materials, including processing aspects, and applications such as sensors, signal transducers, transient, implantable and digestible electronics.
With its interdisciplinary approach this text will appeal to the chemistry, physics, materials science, and engineering communities.

List of Contributors xi

Preface xv

1 Emerging ""Green"" Materials and Technologies for Electronics 1
Melanie Baumgartner, Maria E. Coppola, Niyazi S. Sariciftci, Eric D. Głowacki, Siegfried Bauer, and Mihai Irimia‐Vladu

1.1 Introduction to “Green” Materials for Electronics 1

1.2 Paper 2

1.3 DNA and Nucleobases 8

1.4 Silk 13

1.5 Saccharides 16

1.6 Aloe Vera, Natural Waxes, and Gums 18

1.7 Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives 22

1.8 Resins 25

1.9 Gelatine 28

1.10 Proteins, Peptides, Aminoacids 31

1.11 Natural and Nature-Inspired Semiconductors 34

1.12 Perspectives 45

References 45

2 Fabrication Approaches for Conducting Polymer Devices 55
Dimitrios A. Koutsouras, Eloïse Bihar, Jessamyn A. Fairfield, Mohamed Saadaoui, and George G. Malliaras

2.1 Introduction 55

2.2 Photolithography 56

2.2.1 History 56

2.2.2 Basic Principles 57

2.2.3 Fabrication Steps 59

2.2.3.1 Substrate Cleaning 59

2.2.3.2 Deposition of the Photoresist 60

2.2.3.3 Post‐apply Bake 61

2.2.3.4 Use of the Mask/Alignment/Exposure 62

2.2.3.5 Development 63

2.2.3.6 Descumming and Post‐baking 64

2.2.3.7 Pattern Transfer 64

2.2.3.8 Stripping 65

2.2.4 Photolithography in Polymer Device Fabrication 65

2.2.4.1 Sacrificial Layer Method 65

2.2.4.2 Orthogonal Photoresist Method 69

2.3 Printing 71

2.3.1 Contact Printing Technologies 72

2.3.1.1 Gravure 72

2.3.1.2 Flexography 73

2.3.1.3 Screen Printing 74

2.3.2 Noncontact Printing Technologies 75

2.3.2.1 Aerosol Jet 75

2.3.2.2 Inkjet 76

2.3.3 Inks 80

2.3.3.1 Metallic Inks 80

2.3.3.2 Dielectric Inks 81

2.3.3.3 Conducting Polymer Inks 81

2.3.4 Comparison of Printing Techniques 82

2.4 Conclusions 83

References 84

3 Biocompatible Circuits for Human–Machine Interfacing 91
Erik O. Gabrielsson, Daniel T. Simon, and Magnus Berggren

3.1 Introduction 91

3.2 Ion Transport Mechanisms 93

3.2.1 Ions and Types of Electrolytes 93

3.2.2 Ion Transport 93

3.2.2.1 Migration and Diffusion 93

3.2.2.2 Transport Number 94

3.2.3 Ion‐Exchange Membranes 95

3.2.4 Bipolar Membranes 96

3.2.4.1 Forward Bias Regime 96

3.2.4.2 Reverse Bias Regime 97

3.2.5 Electrodes 98

3.3 Organic Electronic Ion Pump 99

3.3.1 Applications 100

3.3.2 Limitations 103

3.4 Ion Diodes, Transistors, and Circuits 103

3.4.1 Ion‐Conducting Diodes 104

3.4.2 Transistors for Modulating Ion Flows 106

3.4.3 Applications 109

3.4.3.1 Modulating Neurotransmitter Flow 109

3.4.3.2 Diode Logics 109

3.4.3.3 Transistor Logics 109

3.4.3.4 Full‐Wave Rectifier 111

3.5 Conclusions 113

References 115

4 Biocompatible Devices and Sustainable Processes for Green Electronics: Biocompatible Organic Electronic Devices for Sensing Applications 119
Kyriaki Manoli, Mohammad Yusuf Mulla, Preethi Seshadri, Amber Tiwari, Mandeep Singh, Maria Magliulo, Gerardo Palazzo, and Luisa Torsi

4.1 Introduction 119

4.2 Fundamental Aspects of OTFT Sensors 120

4.3 OTFT: Sensing Applications 123

4.3.1 OTFTs: Chemical Sensors 123

4.3.1.1 Gas Sensors 123

4.3.1.2 Liquid Sensing 126

4.4 OTFTs: Biosensors 128

4.4.1 OTFTs with Solid Dielectric 129

4.4.2 Electrolyte‐Gated OTFT Biosensors 132

4.4.2.1 EGOFET Biosensors 132

4.4.2.2 OECTs Biosensors 136

4.5 Conclusions 139

References 139

5 Biocompatible Materials for Transient Electronics 145
Suk‐Won Hwang and John A. Rogers

5.1 Introduction 145

5.2 Mechanisms of Dissolution of Monocrystalline Silicon Nanomembranes (Si NMs) 146

5.3 Dissolution Mechanisms of Transient Conductors and Insulators 148

5.4 Tunable/Programmable Transience 150

5.5 Transient Electronic Systems 152

5.6 Functional Transformation via Transience 155

5.7 Biocompatiblity and Bioresorption 157

5.8 Practical Applications in Medical Implants 158

5.9 Conclusions 160

References160

6 Paper Electronics 163
Martti Toivakka, Jouko Peltonen, and Ronald Österbacka

6.1 Introduction 163

6.2 Paper as a Substrate for Electronics 164

6.3 Application Areas for Paper Electronics 169

6.4 Green Electronics on Paper 171

6.4.1 Diode Structures 171

6.4.2 Light-Emitting Paper 172

6.4.3 Solar Cells 173

6.4.4 TFTs on Paper 175

6.5 Paper-Based Analytical Devices and Test Platforms 175

6.5.1 Paper as a Sensor Substrate 175

6.5.2 Paper-Based Microplates, Patterning 177

6.5.3 Paper-Based Microfluidics 178

6.5.4 Colorimetric (Optical) Indicators and Sensors 179

6.5.5 Electrical and Electro-Optical Sensors 179

6.5.6 Electrochemical Sensors, Assays 181

6.5.7 Wireless and Remote Sensing 181

6.6 Summary and Future Outlook 182

References 183

7 Engineering DNA and Nucleobases for Present and Future Device Applications 191
Eliot F. Gomez and Andrew J. Steckl

7.1 The Versatile World of Nucleic Acids 191

7.1.1 Introduction 191

7.1.2 Natural and Artificial Synthesis Sources of Nucleic Acids 193

7.2 Nucleic Acids in Electronics 195

7.2.1 Introduction 195

7.2.2 Thin Film Properties 197

7.2.3 Nucleic Acids in Organic Electronic Devices 200

7.3 Nucleic Acids in Nanotechnology 206

7.3.1 Introduction 206

7.3.2 DNA Nanotechnology 209

7.3.3 Wet‐to‐Dry Transition 210

7.4 DNA Molecular Engineering 213

7.4.1 Introduction 213

7.4.2 Metal–Nucleobase Interaction and Self‐assembly 214

7.4.3 DNA Biosensing 219

7.4.4 Electrode Self‐assembly and Affinity in DNA Electronics 219

7.5 Summary and Future Outlook 223

Acknowledgments 224

References 224

8 Grotthuss Mechanisms: From Proton Transport in Ion Channels to Bioprotonic Devices 235
Takeo Miyake and Marco Rolandi

8.1 Introduction 235

8.2 Proton Wires: Chains of Hydrogen Bonds and Grotthuss Mechanisms 236

8.3 Proton Transport in Proton Channels 237

8.4 Proton Transport across Membranes and Oxidative Phosphorylation 238

8.5 Biopolymer Proton Conductors 239

8.6 Devices Based on Proton Conductors 240

8.7 Bioprotonic Devices: Diodes, Transistors, Memories, and Transducers 240

8.7.1 Protodes: PdHx for Efficient Proton Transport at the Contact Biopolymer Interface 241

8.7.2 Hydrogen Diffusion inside PdHx and Depletion: Synaptic Devices and Memories 243

8.7.3 A Phenomenological Description of Proton Transport and Acid and Base Doping 244

8.7.4 Complementary Bioprotonic Transistors 246

8.7.5 Enzyme Logic Transducer 248

8.8 Future Outlook 249

Acknowledgments 250

References 250

9 Emulating Natural Photosynthetic Apparatus by Employing Synthetic Membrane Proteins in Polymeric Membranes 255
Cherng-Wen Darren Tan and Eva-Kathrin Sinner

9.1 Introduction 255

9.2 Light-Harvesting Complex II 256

9.3 Natural Proteins in Natural Membrane Assemblies 257

9.3.1 The Need for Reliable Test Systems 259

9.3.2 Membrane Proteins in Artificial Membranes 260

9.3.3 Membrane Protein Production 260

9.3.4 Artificial Membranes 261

9.3.5 Integrating Protein and Membrane Production 261

9.3.6 LHCII in Artificial Lipid Membranes 263

9.3.7 LHCII in Artificial Polymer Membranes 263

9.4 Plant-Inspired Photovoltaics: The Twenty-First Century and Beyond 265

List of Abbreviations 265

References 265

10 Organic Optoelectronic Interfaces for Vision Restoration 269
Andrea Desii, Maria R. Antognazza, Fabio Benfenati, and Guglielmo Lanzani

10.1 Introduction 269

10.2 Retinal Implants for Vision Restoration 273

10.2.1 Toward an Organic Artificial Retina 275

10.2.2 Cellular Photostimulation Mediated by Molecular Materials 276

10.2.3 Optoelectronic Organic Membranes for Cell Stimulation 277

10.2.4 Photoelectrical Stimulation of Explanted Blind Retinas Mediated by Optoelectronic Thin Membranes 280

10.3 Perspectives 282

References 283

11 Nanostructured Silica from Diatoms Microalgae: Smart Materials for Photonics and Electronics 287
Roberta Ragni, Stefania R. Cicco, Danilo Vona, and Gianluca M. Farinola

11.1 Diatoms: Living Cells in Glass Houses 287

11.2 Diatom Frustules in Photonics and Optics 291

11.2.1 Diatom Frustules as Photonic Crystals 291

11.2.2 Autofluorescence of Diatom Frustules 295

11.2.3 Functionalization of Diatom Frustules with Organic or Inorganic Emitters 298

11.3 Diatom Frustules in Electronics 302

11.3.1 Hybrid Metal or Metal Oxide Biosilica‐Based Materials for Electronics 302

11.3.2 Diatom Frustules as Templates for Three‐Dimensional Replication 304

11.4 Conclusions 308

Acknowledgments 309

References 309

Index 315