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Green Solvents: Ionic Liquids, Volume 6

Green Solvents: Ionic Liquids, Volume 6

$210.99

Description

The shift towards being as environmentally-friendly as possible has resulted in the need for this important volume on the role of ionic liquids in green chemistry. Edited by Peter Wasserscheid, one of the pioneers of ionic liquid research, and Annegret Stark, this is an essential resource for anyone wishing to gain an understanding of the world of green chemistry, as well as for chemists, environmental agencies and chemical engineers.

lonic Liquids and Green Chemistry – an Extended Preface XIII

About the Editors XXI

List of Contributors XXIII

Part I Green Synthesis 1

1 The Green Synthesis of Ionic Liquids 3
Maggel Deetlefs and Kenneth R. Seddon

1.1 The Status Quo of Green Ionic Liquid Syntheses 3

1.2 Ionic Liquid Preparations Evaluated for Greenness 4

1.3 Which Principles of Green Chemistry are Relevant to Ionic Liquid Preparations? 6

1.4 Atom Economy and the E-factor 7

1.4.1 Atom Economy 7

1.4.2 The E-factor 8

1.5 Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (SWOT) Analyses 8

1.6 Conductive Heating Preparation of 1-Alkyl-3-methylimidazolium Halide Salts 8

1.7 Purification of 1-Alkyl-3-methylimidazolium Halide Salts 12

1.7.1 SWOT Analysis: Conductively Heated Preparation of 1-Alkyl-3- Methylimidazolium Halide Salts and Their Subsequent Purification 14

1.8 Ionic Liquid Syntheses Promoted by Microwave Irradiation 15

1.8.1 Microwave-assisted Versus Traditional Ionic Liquid Preparations 18

1.8.2 SWOT Analysis: Microwave-promoted Syntheses of Ionic Liquids 18

1.9 Syntheses of Ionic Liquids Promoted by Ultrasonic Irradiation 20

1.9.1 SWOT Analysis: Ultrasound-promoted Syntheses of Ionic Liquids 22

1.10 Simultaneous Use of Microwave and Ultrasonic Irradiation to Prepare Ionic Liquids 23

1.10.1 SWOTAnalysis: Simultaneous Use of Microwave and Ultrasonic Irradiation to Prepare Ionic Liquids 24

1.11 Preparation of Ionic Liquids Using Microreactors 25

1.11.1 SWOT Analysis: Preparation of Ionic Liquids Using Microreactors 27

1.12 Purification of Ionic Liquids with Non-halide Anions 28

1.12.1 Purification of Hydrophobic Versus Hydrophilic Ionic Liquids 28

1.12.2 SWOT Analyses: Purification of Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Ionic Liquids 29

1.13 Decolorization of Ionic Liquids 31

1.13.1 SWOT Analysis: Decolorization of Ionic Liquids 31

1.14 Conclusion 34

References 36

Part II Green Synthesis Using Ionic Liquids 39

2 Green Organic Synthesis in Ionic Liquids 41
Peter Wasserscheid and JoniJoni

2.1 General Aspects 41

2.1.1 The Extremely Low Vapor Pressure of Ionic Liquids 43

2.1.2 Stability of Ionic Liquids in Organic Reactions 44

2.1.3 Liquid-Liquid Biphasic Organic Reactions 46

2.1.3.1 Tunable Solubility Properties 47

2.1.3.2 Product Isolation from Organic Reactions with Ionic Liquids 49

2.1.4 Reactive or Catalytic Ionic Liquids in Organic Synthesis 51

2.2 Friedel-Crafts Alkylation 54

2.2.1 Introduction and Technical Background 54

2.2.2 Ionic Liquids in Friedel-Crafts Reaction – the Unique Selling Point 55

2.2.3 Liquid-Liquid Biphasic Catalysis 56

2.2.4 Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) Friedel-Crafts Catalysis 57

References 59

3 Transition Metal Catalysis in Ionic Liquids 65
Peter Wasserscheid

3.1 Solubility and Immobilization of Transition Metal Complexes in Ionic Liquids 65

3.2 Ionic Liquid-Catalyst Interaction 67

3.2.1 Activation of Transition Metal Complexes by Lewis Acidic Ionic Liquids 68

3.2.2 In Situ Carbene Complex Formation 68

3.3 Distillative Product Isolation from Ionic Catalyst Solutions 70

3.4 New Opportunities for Biphasic Catalysis 72

3.5 Green Aspects of Nanoparticle and Nanocluster Catalysis in Ionic Liquids 75

3.6 Green Aspects of Heterogeneous Catalysis in Ionic Liquids 77

3.7 Green Chemistry Aspects of Hydroformylation Catalysis in Ionic Liquids 79

3.7.1 Feedstock Solubility 79

3.7.2 Catalyst Solubility and Immobilization 80

3.7.3 Use of Phosphite Ligands in Ionic Liquids 81

3.7.4 Halogen-containing Ionic Liquids Versus Halogen-free Ionic Liquids in Hydroformylation 81

3.7.5 Hydroformylation in scCO2-Ionic Liquid Multiphasic Systems 82

3.7.6 Reducing the Amount of Ionic liquid Necessary – the Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) Catalyst Technology in Hydroformylation 83

3.8 Conclusion 85

References 85

4 Ionic Liquids in the Manufacture of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural from Saccharides. An Example of the Conversion of Renewable Resources to Platform Chemicals 93
Annegret Stark and Bernd Ondruschka

4.1 Introduction 93

4.1.1 Areas of Application for HMF and its Derivatives 95

4.1.1.1 Direct Uses of HMF 95

4.1.1.2 Derivatives of HMF 96

4.1.2 Summary: Application of HMF and Its Derivatives 98

4.2 HMF Manufacture 99

4.2.1 General Aspects of HMF Manufacture 99

4.2.2 Methods of Manufacture of HMF from Fructose 100

4.2.3 Methods of Manufacture of HMF from Sugars Other Than Fructose 104

4.2.4 Deficits in HMF Manufacture 105

4.3 Goals of Study 105

4.4 HMF Manufacture in Ionic Liquids – Results of Detailed Studies in the Jena Laboratories 105

4.4.1 Temperature 106

4.4.2 Concentration and Time 106

4.4.3 Effect of Water 108

4.4.4 Effect of Purity 109

4.4.5 Effect of the Choice of Ionic Liquid 111

4.4.6 Other Saccharides 112

4.4.7 Continuous Processing of HMF 114

4.5 Conclusion 117

References 118

5 Cellulose Dissolution and Processing with Ionic Liquids 123
Uwe Vagt

5.1 General Aspects 123

5.2 Dissolution of Cellulose in Ionic Liquids 127

5.3 Rheological Behavior of Cellulose Solutions in Ionic Liquids 129

5.4 Regeneration of the Cellulose and Recycling of the Ionic Liquid 131

5.5 Cellulosic Fibers 131

5.6 Cellulose Derivatives 134

5.7 Fractionation of Biomass with Ionic Liquids 134

5.8 Conclusion and Outlook 135

References 135

Part III Ionic Liquids in Green Engineering 137

6 Green Separation Processes with Ionic Liquids 139
Wytze (G. W.) Meindersma, Ferdy (S. A. F.) Onink, and Andre B. de Haan

6.1 Introduction 139

6.2 Liquid Separations 141

6.2.1 Extraction 141

6.2.1.1 Metal Extraction 141

6.2.1.2 Extraction of Aromatic Hydrocarbons 145

6.2.1.3 Proteins 151

6.2.2 Extractive Distillation 153

6.2.2.1 Conventional Process 153

6.2.2.2 Ionic Liquids in Extractive Distillation 155

6.2.2.3 Conclusions 157

6.3 Environmental Separations 158

6.3.1 Desulfurization and Denitrogenation of Fuels 158

6.3.1.1 Conventional Desulfurization 158

6.3.1.2 Desulfurization with Ionic Liquids 158

6.3.1.3 Oxidative Desulfurization 162

6.3.1.4 Conclusions 163

6.4 Combination of Separations in the Liquid Phase with Membranes 163

6.4.1 Conclusions 164

6.5 Gas Separations 164

6.5.1 Conventional Processes 164

6.5.2 CO2 Separation with Standard Ionic Liquids 165

6.5.3 CO2 Separation with Functionalized Ionic Liquids 165

6.5.4 CO2 Separation with Ionic Liquid (Supported) Membranes 166

6.5.5 Olefin-Paraffin Separations with Ionic Liquids 168

6.5.6 Conclusions 168

6.6 Engineering Aspects 168

6.6.1 Equipment 168

6.6.2 Hydrodynamics 169

6.6.3 Mass Transfer 171

6.6.4 Conclusions 172

6.7 Design of a Separation Process 172

6.7.1 Introduction 172

6.7.2 Application of COSMO-RS 173

6.7.3 Conclusions 174

6.8 Conclusions 175

References 176

7 Applications of Ionic Liquids in Electrolyte Systems 191
William R. Pitner, Peer Kirsch, Kentaro Kawata, and Hiromi Shinohara

7.1 Introduction 191

7.2 Electrolyte Properties of Ionic Liquids 193

7.3 Electrochemical Stability 196

7.4 Dye-sensitized Solar Cells 198

References 200

8 Ionic Liquids as Lubricants 203
Marc Uerdingen

8.1 Introduction 203

8.2 Why Are Ionic Liquids Good Lubricants? 204

8.2.1 Wear and Friction Behavior 204

8.2.2 Pressure Behavior 210

8.2.3 Thermal Stability 210

8.2.4 Viscosity Index and Pour Point 213

8.2.5 Corrosion 215

8.2.6 Electric Conductivity 215

8.2.7 Ionic Greases 216

8.3 Applications, Conclusion and Future Challenges 217

References 218

9 New Working Pairs for Absorption Chillers 221
Matthias Seiler and Peter Schwab

9.1 Introduction 221

9.2 Absorption Chillers 222

9.3 Requirements and Challenges 223

9.3.1 Thermodynamics, Heat and Mass Transfer 224

9.3.2 Crystallization Behavior 224

9.3.3 Corrosion Behavior 225

9.3.4 Viscosity 225

9.3.5 Thermal Stability 225

9.4 State of the Art and Selected Results 226

9.5 Abbreviations 228

References 228

Part IV Ionic Liquids and the Environment 233

10 Design of Inherently Safer Ionic Liquids: Toxicology and Biodegradation 235
Marianne Matzke, Jürgen Arning, Johannes Ranke, Bernd Jastorf, and Stefan Stolte

10.1 Introduction 235

10.1.1 The T-SAR Approach and the “Test Kit” Concept 236

10.1.2 Strategy for the Design of Sustainable Ionic Liquids 238

10.2 (Eco)toxicity of Ionic Liquids 239

10.2.1 Influence of the Side Chain 243

10.2.2 Influence of the Head Group 254

10.2.3 Influence of the Anion 255

10.2.4 Toxicity of Ionic Liquids as a Function of the Surrounding Medium 257

10.2.5 Combination Effects 259

10.2.6 (Quantitative) Structure-Activity Relationships and Modes of Toxic Action 261

10.2.7 Conclusion 263

10.3 Biodegradability of Ionic Liquids 265

10.3.1 Introduction 265

10.3.2 Testing of Biodegradability 266

10.3.3 Results from Biodegradation Experiments 268

10.3.3.1 Biodegradability of Ionic Liquid Anions 269

10.3.3.2 Biodegradability of Imidazolium Compounds 283

10.3.3.3 Pyridinium and 4-(Dimethylamino)pyridinium Compounds 284

10.3.3.4 Biodegradability of Other Head Groups 285

10.3.4 Misleading Interpretation of Biodegradation Data 286

10.3.5 Metabolic Pathways of Ionic Liquid Cations 288

10.3.6 Abiotic Degradation 290

10.3.7 Outlook 290

10.4 Conclusion 290

10.4.1 Toxicity and (Eco)toxicity of Ionic Liquids 291

10.4.2 Biodegradability of Ionic Liquids 293

10.4.3 The Goal Conflict in Designing Sustainable Ionic Liquids 293

10.4.4 Final Remarks 294

References 295

11 Eco-efficiency Analysis of an Industrially Implemented Ionic Liquidbased Process – the BASF BASIL Process 299
Peter Saling, Matthias Maase, and Uwe Vagt

11.1 The Eco-efficiency Analysis Tool 299

11.1.1 General Aspects 299

11.2 The Methodological Approach 299

11.2.1 Introduction 300

11.2.2 What is Eco-efficiency Analysis? 302

11.2.3 Preparation of a Specific Life-cycle Analysis for All Investigated Products and Processes 303

11.3 The Design of the Eco-efficiency Study of BASIL 303

11.4 Selected Single Results 304

11.4.1 Energy Consumption 304

11.4.2 Global Warming Potential (GWP) 306

11.4.3 Water Emissions 307

11.4.4 The Ecological Fingerprint 307

11.4.5 Cost Calculation 308

11.5 The Creation of the Eco-efficiency Portfolio 309

11.6 Scenario Analysis 311

11.7 Conclusion 312

11.8 Outlook 313

References 314

12 Perspectives of lonic Liquids as Environmentally Benign Substitutes for Molecular Solvents 315
Denise Ott, Dana Kralisch, and Annegret Stark

12.1 Introduction 315

12.2 Evaluation and Optimization of R&D Processes: Developing a Methodology 317

12.2.1 Solvent Selection Tools 317

12.2.2 LCA Methodology 318

12.2.3 The ECO Method 319

12.2.3.1 The Key Objectives 320

12.2.3.2 The Evaluation and Optimization Procedure 321

12.3 Assessment of Ionic Liquid Synthesis – Case Studies 322

12.3.1 Synthesis of Ionic Liquids: Extract from the Optimization Procedure 324

12.3.2 Validation of EF as an Indicator for Several Impact Categories of the LCA Methodology 326

12.3.3 Comparison of the Life Cycle Environmental Impacts of the Manufacture of Ionic Liquids with Molecular Solvents 327

12.4 Assessment of the Application of Ionic Liquids in Contrast to Molecular Solvents 329

12.4.1 Case Study: Diels-Alder Reaction 329

12.4.1.1 Evaluation of the Solvent Performance 330

12.4.1.2 Evaluation of the Energy Factor EF 330

12.4.1.3 Evaluation of the Environmental and Human Health Factor EHF – Examples 332

12.4.1.4 Evaluation of the Cost Factor CF 332

12.4.1.5 Alternative Ionic Liquid Choices 334

12.4.1.6 Decision Support 334

12.5 Conclusions 335

References 336

lndex 341