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Green Solvents: Supercritical Solvents, Volume 4

Green Solvents: Supercritical Solvents, Volume 4

Paul T. Anastas (Series Editor), Walter Leitner (Volume Editor), Philip G. Jessop (Volume Editor)

ISBN: 978-3-527-68858-6

Apr 2014

508 pages

$210.99

Description

The shift towards being as environmentally-friendly as possible has resulted in the need for this important volume on the topic of supercritical solvents. Edited by the leading experts in the field, Professors Walter Leitner and Phil Jessop, this is an essential resource for anyone wishing to gain an understanding of the world of green chemistry, as well as for chemists, environmental agencies and chemical engineers.
Introduction to Supercritical Fluids

Preface
INTRODUCTION
What is a Supercritical Fluid (SCF)?
Practical Aspects of Reactions in Supercritical Fluids
The Motivation for Use of SCFs in Modern Chemical Synthesis
The History and Applications of SCFs
HIGH-PRESSURE METHODS AND EQUIPMENT
Introduction
Infrastructure for High-Pressure Experiments
High-Pressure Reactors
Auxiliary Equipment and Handling
Dosage Under a High-Pressure Regime
Further Regulations and Control in Flow Systems
Evaporation and Condensation
Complete Reactor Systems for Synthesis with SCFs
Conclusion
BASIC PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, PHASE BEHAVIOR AND SOLUBILITY
Introduction
Basic Physical Properties of Supercritical Fluids
Phase Behavior in High-Pressure Systems
Factors Affecting Solubiliy in Supercritical Fluids
EXPANDED LIQUID PHASES IN CATALYSIS: GAS-EXPANDED LIQUIDS AND LIQUID-SUPERCRITICAL FLUID BIPHASIC SYSTEMS
A Practical Classification of Biphasic Systems Consisting of Liquids and Compressed Gases for Multiphase Catalysis
Physical Properties of Expanded Liquid Phases
Chemisorption of Gases in Liquids and their Use for Synthesis and Catalysis
Using Gas-Expanded Liquids for Catalysis
Why Perform Liquid-SCF Biphasic Reactions?
Biphasic Liquid-SCF Systems
Biphasic Reactions in Emulsions
SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMISTRY IN SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDS
Introduction
Hydrogenation in Supercritical Fluids
Hydroformylation and Related Reactions in Supercritical Fluids
Oxidation Reactions in Supercritical Fluids
Palladium-Mediated Coupling Reactions in Supercritical Fluids
Miscellaneous Catalytic Reactions in Supercritical Fluids
Cycloaddition Reactions in Supercritical Fluids
Photochemical Reactions in Supercritical Fluids
Radical Reactions in Supercritical Fluids
Biotransformations in Supercritical Fluids
Conclusion
HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS
Introduction and Scope
General Aspects of Heterogeneous Catalysis in SCFs and GXLs
Selected Examples of Heterogeneously Catalyzed Conversions in SCFs and GXLs
Outlook
ENZYMATIC CATALYSIS
Enzymes in Non-Aqueous Environments
Supercritical Fluids for Enzyme Catalysis
Enzymatic Reactions in Supercritical Fluids
Reaction Parameters in Supercritical Biocatalysis
Stabilized Enzymes for Supercritical Biocatalysis
Enzymatic Catalysis in lL-scCO2 Biphasic Systems
Future Trends

POLYMERIZATION IN SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE
General Aspects
Polymerization in scCO2
Conclusion
SYNTHESIS OF NANOMATERIALS
Introduction
Metal and Semiconductor Nanocrystals
Metal Oxide Nanoparticles
Carbon Nanomaterials
Nanocomposites
Conclusion
PHOTOCHEMICAL AND PHOTO-INDUCED REACTIONS IN SUPERCRITICAL FLUID SOLVENTS
Introduction
Photochemical Reactions in Supercritical Fluid Solvents
Photo-Initiated Radical Chain Reactions in Supercritical Fluid Solvents
Conclusion
ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS
Introduction
Electrochemical Methods
Analytes
Electrolytes
Electrochemical Cell and Supercritical Fluid Delivery System
Electrodes
Solvents
Applications
Conclusion and Outlook
COUPLING REAGENTS AND SEPARATION IN TUNABLE FLUIDS: PHASE TRANSFER-CATALYSIS AND ACID-CATALYZED REACTIONS
Introduction
Phase Transfer Catalysis
Near-Critical Water
Alkylcarbonic Acids
Conclusion
CHEMISTRY IN NEAR- AND SUPERCRITICAL WATER
Introduction
Properties
Synthesis Reactions
Biomass Conversion
Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO)
Inorganic Compounds in NSCW
Conclusion
Future Trends