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Green and Sustainable Advanced Materials: Applications, Volume 2

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Green and Sustainable Advanced Materials: Applications, Volume 2

Shakeel Ahmed (Editor), Prof. Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-52836-4 October 2018 402 Pages

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Sustainable development is a very prevalent concept of modern society. This concept has appeared as a critical force in combining a special focus on development and growth by maintaining a balance of using human resources and the ecosystem in which we are living. The development of new and advanced materials is one of the powerful examples in establishing this concept. Green and sustainable advanced materials are the newly synthesized material or existing modified material having superior and special properties. These fulfil today’s growing demand for equipment, machines and devices with better quality for an extensive range of applications in various sectors such as paper, biomedical, textile, and much more.

Volume 2, provides chapters on the valorization of green and sustainable advanced materials from a biomedical perspective as well as the applications in textile technology, optoelectronics, energy materials systems, and the food and agriculture industry.

Preface xvii

1 Green Sustainability, Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials – A Critical Overview and a Vision for the Future 1
Sukanchan Palit and Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 The Aim and Objective of This Study 2

1.3 The Need and the Rationale of This Study 3

1.4 Environmental and Green Sustainability 3

1.5 The Scientific Doctrine of Green Sustainability and Green Engineering 4

1.6 Scientific Vision and Scientific Doctrine of Nanotechnology 5

1.7 What Do You Mean by Advanced Materials? 5

1.8 The World of Advanced Materials Today 6

1.9 Recent Scientific Endeavour in the Field of Green Sustainability 6

1.10 The Challenges and Vision of Research Pursuit in Nanotechnology Today 10

1.11 Technological Vision and the Scientific Endeavour in Advanced Materials 11

1.12 The Vision of Energy and Environmental Sustainability 12

1.13 Global Water Shortage and the Challenges of Research and Development Initiatives 13

1.14 Heavy Metal and Arsenic Groundwater Remediation 14

1.15 Water Purification Technologies and the World of Environmental Sustainability 15

1.16 Future Frontiers and Future Flow of Scientific Thoughts 16

1.17 Future Research Trends in Sustainability and Nanotechnology Applications 16

1.18 Summary, Conclusion and Scientific Perspectives 17

References 17

2 Valorization of Green and Sustainable Advanced Materials from a Biomed Perspective – Potential Applications 19
Muhammad Bilal, Tahir Rasheed, Abaid Ullah and Hafiz M. N. Iqbal

2.1 Introduction 20

2.2 Multi-Functional Characteristics of Green and Sustainable Materials – Smart Polymers 20

2.3 Biomedical Potentialities of Biopolymers and/or Biopolymers-Based Constructs 24

2.4 Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles – Biomedical Applications 25

2.5 BioMOFs: Metal–Organic Frameworks 28

2.6 Bioinspired MOFs – Biomedical Application and Prospects 29

2.7 Drug Delivery Perspectives of MOFs 31

2.8 MOF in Enantioseparation of Drug Racemates 31

2.9 Porous Covalent Organic Cages as Bio-Inspired Materials 33

2.10 pH-Responsive Hydrogels for Drug Delivery Applications 34

2.11 Concluding Remarks 35

Conflict of Interest 38

Acknowledgements 38

References 38

3 Applications of Textile Materials Using Emerging Sources and Technology: A New Perspective 49
Pintu Pandit, Saptarshi Maiti, Gayatri T.N. and Aranya Mallick

3.1 Introduction 50

3.2 Synthesis, Forms, Properties and Applications of Graphene 52

3.2.1 Structure and Forms of Graphene 52

3.2.2 Synthesis and Production Methods of Graphene 53

3.2.3 Properties of Graphene 54

3.2.4 Applications of Graphene 55

3.2.4.1 Application of Graphene in Energy Storage, Optoelectronics, and Photovoltaic Cell 55

3.2.4.2 Application of Graphene in Ultrafiltration and Bioengineering 57

3.2.4.3 Application of Graphene in Textile Materials and Composites 57

3.3 Essential Role for Nanomaterials in Textiles 59

3.3.1 Developing and Processing Nanoengineered Textiles 60

3.3.2 Nanofiber Application Driven by Function-of-Form Paradigm 63

3.4 Types, Synthesis and Application of Dendrimers 65

3.4.1 Types of Dendrimers 66

3.4.2 Synthesis of Dendrimers (Divergent and Convergent Method) 67

3.4.3 Application of Dendrimers in Chemical Processing of Textile Materials 68

3.4.4 Application of Dendrimers in Medical Textiles 69

3.4.5 Application of Dendrimers in Effluent Treatment 70

3.5 Application of Plasma Technology in Textile Materials 71

3.6 Synthesis and Applications of Biopolymer-Based Absorbents 74

3.7 Conclusion 77

References 78

4 Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials: Applications and Environmental Issues 85
Pooja Thakur, Kamal Kumar Bhardwaj and Reena Gupta

4.1 Introduction 86

4.2 NPs and Nanodevices 87

4.3 Types of NPs 88

4.3.1 Carbon Based NPs 89

4.3.1.1 Fullerenes 89

4.3.1.2 Carbon Nanotubes 90

4.3.1.3 Graphene Nanofoils 90

4.3.1.4 Carbon Nanofibres 91

4.3.1.5 Carbon Black 91

4.3.1.6 Carbon Nanofoams 92

4.3.2 Inorganic NPs 92

4.3.2.1 Metals 92

4.3.2.2 Metal Oxides 92

4.3.2.3 Quantum Dots 93

4.3.3 Organic NPs 94

4.3.3.1 Organic Polymers 94

4.3.3.2 Biologically Inspired NPs 94

4.4 Applications of NPs 94

4.4.1 Applications of Nanotechnology by Sectors of Activity 94

4.4.2 Nanotechnology Applications by NP Type 95

4.5 Environmental Impacts of Nanotechnology and its Products 95

4.5.1 Potential Environmental Effects 100

4.5.2 Fate of NPs in the Environment 101

4.5.3 Positive Effects on Environment 104

4.5.4 Negative Effects on Environment 105

4.6 Conclusion 106

Acknowledgements 106

Conflict of Interests 107

References 107

5 Chitosan in Water Purification Technology 111
Ajith James Jose, Ann Mary Jacob, Manjusha K. C. and Jincymol Kappen

5.1 Introduction 111

5.2 Chitosan 112

5.3 Chitosan in Waste Water Treatment 115

5.3.1 Treatment of Agricultural Waste Water 115

5.3.2 Treatment of Textile Effluents 116

5.3.3 Household Drinking Water Treatment 117

5.4 Mechanism Behind the Waste Water Treatment by Chitosan 118

5.4.1 Removal of Heavy Metals 118

5.4.2 Removal of Bacteria 120

5.5 Conclusion 121

References 121

6 Green and Sustainable Advanced Materials – Environmental Applications 125
Swapnil Sharma, Vivek Dave, Kanika Verma and Jaya Dwivedi

6.1 Introduction 125

6.2 Application of Advanced Green Sustainable Materials in Sensing and Removal of Water Toxicants 126

6.2.1 Materials Used for Sensing and Removal of Dyes and Heavy Metals from Water 126

6.2.1.1 Dyes 126

6.2.1.2 Heavy Metal 127

6.2.1.3 Removal of Heavy Metal and Dye from Naturally Derived Bio-Sorbents 134

6.2.2 Removal of Microbial Pathogen from Water 137

6.2.3 Removal of Radioactive Pollutants from Water 146

6.3 Removal of Contaminants from Air 147

6.4 Application of Sustainable Material in Soil Remediation 148

Acknowledgement 149

References 149

7 Green and Sustainable Copper-Based Nanomaterials – An Environmental Perspective 159
Santosh Bahadur Singh

7.1 Introduction 160

7.2 Copper-Based Nanomaterials and its Sustainability 162

7.2.1 Metallic Copper Nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) 162

7.2.2 Copper Oxide (CuO)-Based NPs 163

7.2.3 Supported Copper Nanomaterials 164

7.2.4 Growth Mechanism of Copper Nanomaterials 165

7.3 Copper-Based Nanomaterials in Catalysis: As a Tool for Environmental Cleaning 165

7.4 Copper-Based Nanomaterials in Environmental Remediation 166

7.5 Environmental Perspective of Copper Nanomaterials 169

7.6 Concluding Remarks 170

References 170

8 An Excellence Method on Starch-Based Materials: A Promising Stage for Environmental Application 177
Tanvir Arfin and Kamini Sonawane

8.1 History 177

8.2 Sources 178

8.2.1 Tubers or Roots 178

8.2.2 Corn 178

8.3 Physiochemical Properties 178

8.3.1 Characteristics of Starch Granules 178

8.3.2 Glass Transition Temperature and Birefringence 180

8.3.3 Solubility and Swelling Capacity 181

8.3.4 Retrogradation and Gelatinization 181

8.3.5 Thermal and Rheological Properties 181

8.4 Starch Gelatinization Measurement 182

8.5 Processing of Starch 182

8.5.1 Surface Hydrolysis 182

8.5.2 Native Digestion 183

8.5.3 Hydrothermal Modification 183

8.6 Thermoplastic Starch 184

8.7 Resistant Starch 184

8.8 Starch Nanocrystals 184

8.9 Ionic Liquid 185

8.10 Enzyme Selection 185

8.11 Packing Configuration 186

8.12 Chemical Modification 186

8.12.1 Cross-Linking 188

8.12.2 Starch-Graft Copolymer 188

8.12.2.1 Graft with Vinyl Monomers 189

8.12.2.2 Graft with other Monomers 189

8.12.3 Esterification 190

8.12.3.1 Inorganic Starch Esters 190

8.12.3.2 Organic Starch Esters 190

8.12.4 Etherification 190

8.12.5 Dual Modification 191

8.12.6 Other Chemical Modification 191

8.12.6.1 Oxidation 192

8.12.6.2 Acid Modification 192

8.13 Starch-Based Materials 194

8.13.1 PLA Starch 194

8.13.2 Starch Alginate 194

8.13.3 PCL Starch 194

8.13.4 Chitosan Starch 195

8.13.5 Starch Clay 195

8.13.6 Starch and DMAEMA 196

8.13.7 Plasticized Starch(PLS)/Poly(Butylene Succinate Co-Butylene Adipate (PBSA) 196

8.13.8 Gelatin–OSA Starch 197

8.13.9 Chitin and Starch 197

8.13.10 Cashew Nut Shell (CNS) and Chitosan 197

8.14 Applications 198

8.14.1 Wound Dressing 198

8.14.2 Biomedical 198

8.14.3 Nanomaterial 199

8.14.4 Cancer 199

8.14.5 Starch Film 200

8.14.6 Gene Delivery 200

8.14.7 Transdermal Delivery 200

8.14.8 Resistive Switch Memory 201

8.14.9 Oral Drug Delivery 201

8.14.10 Waste Water Treatment 202

8.14.11 Heavy Metal Removal 202

8.14.12 Dry Removal 204

Acknowledgement 205

References 205

9 Synthesized Cu2Zn1-xCdxSnS4 Quinternary Alloys Nanostructures for Optoelectronic Applications 209
Y. Al-Douri and A. S. Ibraheam

9.1 Introduction 210

9.2 Experimental Process 211

9.3 Results and Discussion 213

9.4 Conclusions 219

References 221

10 Biochar Supercapacitors: Recent Developments in the Materials and Methods 223
S. Vivekanandhan

10.1 Introduction 224

10.1.1 Physicochemical Characteristics of Biochar 224

10.1.2 Traditional Uses of Biochar 225

10.1.2.1 Combustible Fuel 225

10.1.2.2 Soil Amendment 226

10.1.2.3 Carbon Sequestration 226

10.1.3 Biochar in Sustainable Bioeconomy 227

10.1.4 Value Added Utilization of Biochar 228

10.1.4.1 Catalysis 228

10.1.4.2 Polymer Composites 229

10.1.4.3 Environmental Remediation 229

10.1.4.4 Energy Storage and Conversion 230

10.2 Biochar Supercapacitors 230

10.2.1 Biochar Based Supercapacitor 231

10.2.1.1 Agricultural Residues 231

10.2.1.2 Industrial Crops 231

10.2.1.3 Industrial Co- Products and By-Products 232

10.2.1.4 Wood Biomasses 233

10.2.2 Capacitive Mechanism for Biochar 235

10.3 Biochar Modification Techniques for Capacitive Applications 237

10.3.1 Activation 237

10.3.1.1 Physical Techniques 237

10.3.1.2 Chemical Techniques 238

10.3.2 Metal, Metal Oxide and Metal Hydroxide Loading 239

10.3.3 Nitrogen and Sulphur Doping 240

10.4 Biochar Based Composite Materials for Supercapacitors Application 242

10.5 Conclusions 243

Acknowledgements 244

References 244

11 Nature and Technoenergy 251
Smita Kapoor, Akshita Mehta and Reena Gupta

11.1 Introduction 251

11.2 Concept of Sustainability 253

11.3 Materials Science and Energy 254

11.4 Green and Advanced Materials 256

11.5 Emerging Natural and Nature-Inspired Materials 261

11.6 Substrates and Encapsulates for Biodegradable and Biocompatible Electronics 262

11.7 Semi-Natural/Semi-Synthetic Substrates: Paper 262

11.8 Applications of Advanced Materials for Energy Applications 267

11.8.1 Optical Materials for Energy Applications 267

11.8.2 Lithium Ion Batteries 269

11.8.3 Polymer Solar Cells 270

11.8.4 Nanomaterials for Energy Application 272

11.8.5 Electrochemical Capacitor 273

11.8.6 Polymer Sulfur Composite Cathode Material 273

11.9 Conclusion 274

References 274

12 Biomedical Applications of Synthetic and Natural Biodegradable Polymers 281
Manpreet Kaur, Akshita Mehta and Reena Gupta

12.1 Introduction 282

12.2 Desired Properties of Polymers for Biomedical Applications 285

12.2.1 Super Hydrophobicity 285

12.2.2 Adhesion 286

12.2.3 Self-Healing 286

12.3 Natural Polymers 286

12.3.1 Collagen as a Biopolymer 287

12.3.2 Applications of Collagen 289

12.3.2.1 Collagen in Ophthalmology 289

12.3.2.2 Collagen in Wound and Burn Dressing 294

12.3.2.3 Collagen in Tissue Engineering 295

12.3.3 Chitin and Chitosan as Biopolymers 297

12.3.4 Applications of Chitin and Chitosan 298

12.3.4.1 Chitosan in Ophthalmology 298

12.3.4.2 Chitin- and Chitosan-Based Dressings 298

12.3.4.3 Chitosan in Drug-Delivery Systems 299

12.4 Synthetic Polymers 301

12.4.1 Polyolefins 301

12.4.2 Poly (Tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) 301

12.4.3 Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) 301

12.4.4 Silicone 302

12.4.5 Methacrylates 302

12.4.6 Polyesters 303

12.4.7 Polyethers 303

12.4.8 Polyamides 303

12.4.9 Polyurethanes 304

12.5 Conclusion 305

Acknowledgements 305

Conflicts of Interests 305

References 305

13 Efficiency of Transition Metals at Nanoscale - as Heterogeneous Catalysts 311
Heeralaxmi Jadon, Sushma Neeraj and Mohammad Kuddus

13.1 Introduction 312

13.2 Mechanism of Heterogeneous Catalyst 313

13.3 Kinetics of Heterogeneous Catalyst 315

13.4 Transition Metals 316

13.4.1 Common Properties of Transition Metals 316

13.5 Individual Properties of Different Transition Metals 319

13.5.1 Scandium (Sc) 319

13.5.2 Titanium (Ti) 320

13.5.3 Vanadium (V) 320

13.5.4 Chromium (Cr) 320

13.5.5 Manganese (Mn) 320

13.5.6 Iron (Fe) 320

13.5.7 Cobalt (Co) 321

13.5.8 Nickel (Ni) 321

13.5.9 Copper (Cu) 321

13.5.10 Zinc (Zn) 321

13.5.11 Yttrium (Y) 322

13.5.12 Zirconium (Zr) 322

13.5.13 Niobium (Nb) 322

13.5.14 Molybdenum (Mo) 323

13.5.15 Technetium (Tc) 323

13.5.16 Rhodium (Rh) 323

13.5.17 Palladium (Pd) 323

13.5.18 Silver (Ag) 324

13.5.19 Cadmium (Cd) 324

13.5.20 Lanthanum (La) 324

13.5.21 Hafnium (Hf) 325

13.5.22 Tantalum (Ta) 325

13.5.23 Tungsten (W) 325

13.5.24 Rhenium (Re) 325

13.5.25 Osmium (Os) 326

13.5.26 Iridium (Ir) 326

13.5.27 Platinum (Pt) 326

13.5.28 Gold (Au) 326

13.5.29 Mercury (Hg) 327

13.5.30 Actinium (Ac) 327

13.5.31 Rutherfordium (Rf) 327

13.5.32 Dubnium (Db) 327

13.5.33 Seaborgium (Sg) 327

13.5.34 Bohrium (Bh) 328

13.5.35 Hassium (Hs) 328

13.5.36 Meitnerium (Mt) 328

13.5.37 Roentgenium (Rg) 328

13.5.38 Copernicium (Cn) 329

13.6 Ability of Transitional Metals for Good Catalysts 329

13.7 Advantages of Catalyst at Nanoscale 330

13.8 Conclusion 337

References 337

14 Applications of Nanomaterials in Agriculture and Food Industry 343
Ashitha Jose and Radhakrishnan E.K

14.1 Introduction 344

14.2 Nanotechnology and Agriculture 346

14.2.1 Precision Farming and Nanotechnology 348

14.2.2 Control Release Formulations 349

14.2.3 Nanoagrochemicals 349

14.2.4 Nanopesticides 352

14.2.5 Nanofungicides 353

14.2.6 Nanofertilizers 354

14.3 Nanotechnology in the Food Industry 357

14.3.1 Food Packaging 359

14.3.2 Biodegradable Packaging 361

14.3.3 Antimicrobial Packaging 361

14.3.4 Antimicrobial Sachets 366

14.3.5 Nanocomposites and Bioactive Compounds 366

14.3.6 Nanosensors 367

14.3.7 Detection of Microorganisms 368

14.3.8 Smart Packaging 368

14.4 Toxicity Concerns Involved with Nanotechnology 368

References 369

Index 377