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Green and Sustainable Advanced Materials: Processing and Characterization, Volume 1

Green and Sustainable Advanced Materials: Processing and Characterization, Volume 1

Shakeel Ahmed (Editor), Prof. Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-40708-9 October 2018 378 Pages

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Sustainable development is a very prevalent concept of modern society. This concept has appeared as a critical force in combining a special focus on development and growth by maintaining a balance of using human resources and the ecosystem in which we are living. The development of new and advanced materials is one of the powerful examples in establishing this concept. Green and sustainable advanced materials are the newly synthesized material or existing modified material having superior and special properties. These fulfil today’s growing demand for equipment, machines and devices with better quality for an extensive range of applications in various sectors such as paper, biomedical, textile, and much more.

Volume 1 gives overviews on a variety of topics of characterization of green and sustainable advanced materials including biopolymers, biocomposites, nanomaterials, polymeric materials, green functional textiles materials and hybrid materials, as well as processing chapters on the design and process aspects of nanofabrication.

1. Green and Sustainable Advanced Materials: Overview
Tanvir Arfin, Arshiya Tarannum and Kamini Sonawane. 1

1.1. History. 1

1.2. Biomaterials. 2

1.2.1. Dextran. 2

1.2.1.1. Chemical Structure. 2

1.2.1.2. Properties. 2

1.2.1.3. Applications. 3

1.2.2. Cellulose. 3

1.2.2.1. Chemical Structure. 4

1.2.2.2. Properties. 4

1.2.2.3. Application

1.2.3. Gelatine. 4

1.2.3.1. Chemical Structure. 5

1.2.3.2. Properties. 5

1.2.3.3. Application. 5

1.2.4. Alginate. 6

1.2.4.1. Chemical Structure. 6

1.2.4.2. Properties. 7

1.2.4.3. Application. 7

1.2.5. Chitin. 7

1.2.5.1. Chemical Structure. 8

1.2.5.2. Properties. 8

1.2.5.3. Application. 8

1.2.6. Chitosan. 8

1.2.6.1. Chemical Structure. 9

1.2.6.2. Properties. 9

1.2.6.3. Application. 9

1.2.7. Pollulan. 9

1.2.7.1. Chemical Structure. 9

1.2.7.2. Properties. 10

1.2.7.3. Applications. 10

1.2.8. Curdlan. 10

1.2.8.1. Chemical Structure. 10

1.2.8.2. Properties. 11

1.2.8.3. Application. 11

1.2.9. Lignin. 11

1.2.9.1. Chemical Structure. 11

1.2.9.2. Properties. 12

1.2.9.3. Application. 12

1.2.10. Xanthan Gum. 13

1.2.10.1. Chemical Structure. 13

1.2.10.2. Properties. 14

1.2.10.3. Applications. 14

1.2.11. Hydrogels. 14

1.2.11.1. Chemical Structure. 14

1.2.11.2. Properties:. 14

1.2.11.3. Application. 15

1.2.12. Xylan. 15

1.2.12.1. Chemical Structure. 16

1.2.12.2. Properties. 16

1.2.12.3. Application. 16

1.2.13. Arabic Gum. 17

1.2.13.1. Chemical Structure. 17

1.2.13.2. Properties. 17

1.2.13.3. Applications. 18

1.3. CdS. 18

1.4. Carbon Nanotube. 19

1.5. Fe Containing Nanomaterial. 20

1.6. Graphene. 20

1.7. Graphene Oxide. 22

1.8. Inulin. 23

1.9. Pectin. 24

1.10. Metal Oxide. 25

1.10.1 TiO2. 25

1.10.2 ZnO. 26

1.10.3 CeO2. 26

1.11. Polymer. 27

1.11.1. Polystyrene. 27

1.11.2. PANI. 28

1.11.3 Starch. 28

1.11.4 Dendrimer. 28

1.12 Bentonite. 29

1.13 Conclusion. 29

References. 30

2. Characterization of Green and Sustainable Advanced Materials. 35
Pintu Pandit and Gayatri T.N.

2.1. Introduction. 36

2.2. Characterization of Advanced Materials. 38

2.3. Physical Characterization of Advanced Materials. 39

2.3.1. Scanning Electron Microscopy. 41

2.3.2. Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. 41

2.3.3. Transmission Electron Microscopy. 42

2.3.4. X-ray Diffraction. 43

2.3.5. Ultraviolet Protection. 44

2.3.6. Thermal Characterization (TGA, DTA, DSC, Cone Calorimetry). 44

2.3.6.1. Thermogravimetric Analysis. 45

2.3.6.2. Differential Thermal Analysis. 47

2.3.6.3. Differential Scanning Calorimetric Analysis. 47

2.3.6.4. Cone Calorimetry. 48

2.3.7. Characterization for Mechanical Properties of Advanced Materials. 49

2.4. Chemical Characterization of Advanced Materials. 50

2.4.1. EXAFS, XPS, and AES. 51

2.4.2. ICP-MS, ICP OES, and SIMS. 55

2.4.3. LC/GC/FTICR-MS. 57

2.4.4. NMR. 58

2.4.5. FTIR and Raman Spectroscopy. 59

2.5. Conclusions. 61

References. 62

3. Green and Sustainable Advanced Biopolymeric and Biocomposite Materials. 67
T.P. Mohan and K. Kanny

3.1. Introduction. 67

3.2. Classification of Green Materials. 68

3.3. Biopolymers. 69

3.4. Natural Fillers. 70

3.5. Natural Fibers. 72

3.6. Biocomposites. 73

3.6.1. Thermoplastic Starch Based Composites. 73

3.6.2. Polylactic Acid (PLA) Based Composites. 74

3.6.3. Cellulose Based Composites. 74

3.6.4. Plant Oil Based Composites. 75

3.6.5. Polymer—Polymer Blends-Based Composites. 76

3.7. Merits and Demerits of Green Materials. 76

3.8. Recent Progress in Improvement of Material Properties. 78

3.8.1. Hybridization. 79

3.9. Current Applications of Biocomposites and Biopolymers. 79

3.9.1. Green Fibers and their Potential in Diversified Applications. 80

3.9.2. Textile Applications. 80

3.9.3. Green Fibers for Pulp. 81

3.9.4. Green Fiber for Biocomposites, Based on Lignocelluloses. 82

3.9.5. Applications of Composites. 83

3.9.6. Particleboards. 83

3.10. Futuristic Applications of Biocomposites and Biopolymers. 83

3.10.1. Development Prospects for Plant Fiber/Polymer Composites: 85

3.11. Conclusion. 85

References. 86

4. Green and Sustainable Advanced Nanomaterials. 93
Alaa K. H. Al-Khalaf and Falah H. Hussein

4.1. Introduction. 93

4.1.1. Green Chemistry and Nanoscale Science. 94

4.1.2. Examples of Such Green Nanoparticles. 94

4.1.2.1. Beta-Carotene Molecule. 94

4.1.2.2. Anthocyanin Molecule. 96

4.1.2.3. Hydro Gel. 99

4.2. Applications of Natural NanoOrganic Materials. 100

4.2.1. Application of Beta-Carotene. 100

4.2.2. Application of Anthocyanin. 100

4.2.3. Application of Hydrogel. 101

4.3. Conclusion. 104

References. 105

5. Biogenic Approaches for SiO2 Nanostructures: Exploring the Sustainable Platform of Nanofabrication. 107
M. Hariram, P. Vishnukumar and S. Vivekanandhan

5.1. Introduction. 108

5.2. Synthesis of SiO2 Nanostructures. 109

5.2.1. Physical Processes. 110

5.2.2. Chemical Processes. 111

5.2.3. Template Assisted Process. 114

5.3. Bio-Mediated Sustainable Processes for SiO2 Nanostructures. 115

5.3.1. Bacterial Assisted Synthesis Process. 116

5.3.2. Fungal Mediates Biogenic Synthesis Process. 118

5.3.3. Plant Based Synthesis Process. 120

5.3.4. Biomolecular Template Assisted Synthetic Process. 123

5.4. Biogenic SiO2 based Doped, Functionalized and Composite Nanostructures. 125

5.4.1. Biogenic Synthesis of Doped and Functionalized SiO2 Nanostructures. 126

5.4.2. Biogenic SiO2 Nanocomposites. 127

5.5. Applications of Bio-fabricated SiO2 Nanoparticles. 129

5.5.1. Catalysis. 130

5.5.2. Biomedical. 130

5.5.3. Energy and Environment. 131

5.6. Conclusions. 131

Acknowledgements. 132

References. 132

6. Green and Sustainable Advanced Composite Materials. 143
Yahya F. Al-Khafaji and Falah H. Hussein.

6.1. Introduction. 143

6.2. Applications of Polymers. 145

6.3. The Problems of Synthetic Polymers. 145

6.4. Why Biodegradable Polymers. 147

6.5. Biodegradable Polymers. 147

6.6. Copolymers. 147

6.7. Examples of Biodegradable Polymers is Polyesters. 148

6.7.1. Aliphatic Polyesters Polylactide PLA, PolYcaprolactone PCL and Polyvalerolactone PVL. 148

6.7.2. Preparation of Polyesters. 148

6.7.2.1. Polycondensation. 149

6.7.2.2. Ring opening Polymerization (ROP). 149

6.7.3. Mechanism of ROP. 150

6.7.3.1. Cationic Ring Opening Polymerization (CROP). 150

6.7.3.2. AnionicRring Opening Polymerization (AROP). 150

6.7.3.3. Coordination-Insertion Polymerization. 150

6.8. Conclusion. 152

References. 152

7. Design and Processing Aspects of Polymer and Composite Materials. 155
Hafiz M. N. Iqbal, Muhammad Bilal and Tahir Rasheed

7.1. Introduction. 156

7.2. Design and Processing. 158

7.3. Natural Polymers and Their Applied Potentialities. 158

7.3.1. Alginate – Physiochemical and Structural Aspects. 158

7.3.2. Carrageenan – Physiochemical and Structural Aspects. 161

7.3.3. Cellulose – Physiochemical and Structural Aspects. 162

7.3.4. CS – Physiochemical and Structural Aspects. 163

7.3.5. Dextran – Physiochemical and Structural Aspects

7.3.6. Guar Gum – Physiochemical and Structural Aspects. 166

7.3.7. Xanthan – Physiochemical and Structural Aspects. 167

7.4. Synthetic Polymers and Their Applied Potentialities. 169

7.4.1. PAA – Physiochemical and Structural Aspects. 169

7.4.2. PAM – Physiochemical and Structural Aspects. 170

7.4.3. PVA – Physiochemical and Structural Aspects. 171

7.4.4. PEG – Physiochemical and Structural Aspects. 171

7.4.5. Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) – Physiochemical and Structural Aspects. 172

7.4.6. PLA – Physiochemical and Structural Aspects. 172

7.5. Materials-based Biocomposites. 173

7.6. Concluding Remarks and Future Considerations. 179

Conflict of Interest. 180

Acknowledgements. 180

References. 180

8. Seaweed-Based Binder in Wood Composites. 191
Kang Chiang Liew and Nur Syafiqah Nadiah Abdul Ghani

8.1. Introduction. 191

8.2. Methods and Techniques. 193

8.2.1. Preparation of Raw Material. 193

8.2.2. Seaweed Adhesive Preparation. 193

8.2.3. Blending and Mat Forming. 193

8.2.4. Conditioning. 194

8.2.5. Data Analysis. 195

8.3. Results and Discussion. 195

8.3.1. Overview. 195

8.3.2. The Physical Properties of Acacia Mangium Particleboard. 195

8.3.2.2. Density. 197

8.3.3. Dimensional Stability of Acacia Mangium Particleboard. 199

8.3.2.1. Moisture Content. 199

8.3.3.2. Thickness Swelling. 201

8.3.4. The Mechanical Properties of Acacia Mangium Particleboard. 204

8.3.3.1. Water Absorption. 204

8.3.4.2. Modulus of Rupture. 205

8.3.4.3. Internal Bonding. 207

8.4. Conclusion. 208

References. 209

9. Green and Sustainable Textile Materials Using Natural Resources. 213
Pintu Pandit, Gayatri T.N. and Saptarshi Maiti

9.1. Introduction. 213

9.2. Sustainable Colouration of Textile Materials Using Natural Plant Waste Resources. 216

9.2.1. Natural Dyeing with DSE on Silk Fabric. 216

9.2.2. Natural Dyeing of Textile Materials Using Sterculia Foetida Fruit Shell Waste Extract. 217

9.2.3. Natural Dyeing of Textile Materials Using Green CSE. 220

9.2.4. Colouration of Textile Materials Using Resources from Temple Flower Waste. 223

9.3. Sustainable Antibacterial Finishing of Textile Materials Using Natural Waste Resources. 223

9.3.1. Antibacterial Activity of Delonix Regia Stem Shell Waste Extract on Silk Fabric. 223

9.3.2. Antibacterial Textile Materials Using Natural Sterculia Foetida Fruit Shell Waste Extract. 224

9.3.3. Antibacterial Textile Materials Using Waste Green CSE. 225

9.4. Sustainable UV Protective Textile Materials Using Waste Natural Resources. 226

9.4.1. UV Protective Silk Fabric Using DSE. 226

9.4.2. UV Protective Textile Materials Using Sterculia Foetida FSE. 227

9.4.3. UV Protective Textile Materials Using Waste Green CSE. 228

9.5. Sustainable Green Flame Retardant Textile Materials Using Natural Resources. 229

9.5.1. Flame Retardancy Imparted by Plant Based Waste Natural Resources. 230

9.5.1.1. Flame Retardant Textile Materials Using Green CSE. 231

9.5.1.2. Flame Retardant Textile Materials Using BPS. 234

9.5.1.3. Flame Retardant Textile Materials Using SJ. 236

9.5.1.4. Flame Retardant Textile Materials Using Starch. 236

9.5.1.5. Flame Retardant Textile Materials Using PRE. 238

9.5.2. Flame Retardancy Imparted by Animal Based Natural Resources. 239

9.5.2.1. Flame Retardant Textile Materials Using Chicken Feather. 239

9.5.2.2. Flame Retardant Textile Materials Using Casein. 239

9.5.2.3. Flame Retardant Textile Materials Using Whey Protein. 240

9.5.2.4. Flame Retardant Textile Materials Using Hydrophobin. 242

9.5.2.5. Flame Retardant Textile Materials Using Deoxyribonucleic Acid. 242

9.5.2.6. Flame Retardant Textile Materials Using Chitosan. 243

9.6. Sustainable Textile Materials Using Clay as Natural Resources. 243

9.6.1. Different Types of Clay and its Application

in Textile Materials. 243

9.6.1.1. Application of Clay in Nanocomposites. 245

9.6.1.2. Application of Clay in UV Protection. 246

9.6.1.3. Application of Clay in Effluent Treatment. 246

9.6.1.4. Application of Clay in Superabsorbency. 247

9.6.1.5. Application of Clay in Discolouration of Denim. 248

9.6.1.6. Application of Clay in Antimicrobial Finish. 248

9.6.1.7. Application of Clay in Flame Retardancy. 249

9.6.1.8. Application of Clay in Dyeing and Printing. 250

9.7. Sustainable Application of Aroma Finishing in Textile Materials Using Natural Resources. 250

9.7.1. Different Natural Sources of Aroma and Technology for Microencapsulation. 250

9.7.2. Preparation of Recipe and Method of Application for Aroma Finishing. 251

9.7.3. Fragrance Release Property of Aroma Finishing. 251

9.7.4. Applications of Aroma Finishing in Textile Materials. 252

9.8. Sustainable Mosquito Repellent Textile Materials Using Natural Resources. 253

9.8.1. Different Types of Repellent Insecticides. 253

9.8.2. Natural Resources of Mosquito Repellents. 253

9.8.3. Mosquito Repellency Evaluation. 253

9.8.4. Method of Application of Mosquito Repellency. 255

9.8.5. Applications of Mosquito Repellency in Textile Materials. 256

9.9. Conclusion. 256

References. 257

10. Green Engineered Functional Textile Materials. 263
Pravin Chavan, Shahid-ul-Islam, Akbar Ali, Shakeel Ahmed and Javed Sheikh

10.1. Introduction. 263

10.1.1. Green Chemicals. 265

10.1.2. Functional Finishing of Textiles: The Expectations. 265

10.2. Different Finishes Applied onto Textiles: Present Techniques vs. Green Methods. 266

10.2.1. Mosquito Repellent Finish. 267

10.2.2. Green Approach. 269

10.3. Methods of Application of Microcapsules on Textiles. 273

10.4. Release Mechanism of Core Material from Microcapsules. 273

10.5. Chemistry of EO. 273

10.6. Evaluation of Mosquito Repellency. 276

10.6.1. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard E951–83. 276

10.6.2. Screened Cage Method. 276

10.6.3. WHO Cone and Field Test Method. 276

10.6.4. Tunnel Test. 277

10.6.5. USDA Laboratory Method. 279

10.7. Aroma Finish. 279

10.7.1. General Method of Application. 280

10.7.2. Green Methods: EO for Aroma Finish. 281

10.7.3. Evaluation of Aroma Finishes. 282

10.8. Conclusion. 282

References. 283

11. Advances in Bio-Nanohybrid Materials. 289
Houda Saad, Pedro Luis de Hoyos, Ezzeddine Srasra, Fatima Charrier-El Bouhtoury

11.1. Introduction. 289

11.2. Inorganic/Organic Hybrids. 290

11.2.1 Definition, Classification and Synthetic Routes. 291

11.2.2 Bio-nanohybrid Materials. 296

11.3. Bio-nanohybrid Materials Based on Clay and Polyphenols. 297

11.3.1 Clay Minerals and Organoclay. 297

11.3.1.1. Clay Minerals. 297

11.3.1.2. Surface Modification of Clay Minerals: Organoclays. 306

11.3.2. Polyphenols as Natural Substances. 309

11.3.3. Clay/Polyphenols Hybrids. 311

11.3.3.1. Techniques Used for Clay-Based Hybrids Characterization. 311

11.4. Conclusions and Perspectives. 323

References. 324

12. Green and Sustainable Selenium Nanoparticles and Their Biotechnological Applications. 333
MeryamSardar and HammadAlam

12.1. Introduction. 334

12.2. Synthesis of SeNPs. 335

12.2.1. Physical Methods of Synthesis of SeNPs. 336

12.2.2. Chemical Methods for Synthesis of SeNPs. 336

12.2.3. Microbial Synthesis of SeNPs. 337

12.2.4. Plant Based Synthesis of SeNPs. 337

12.3. Biotechnological Applications of SeNPs. 341

12.3.1 Anticancerous Activity. 342

12.3.2 Antioxidant Activity. 343

12.3.3 Antidiabetic Effect. 345

12.3.4 Wound Healing. 345

12.3.5 Antibacterial Activity. 345

12.3.6 Antilarvicidal Activity. 347

12.3.7 Biosensors. 347

12.4. Conclusion. 347

Acknowledgments. 348

References. 348

Index. 000