About the Authors.
1.1 Introduction to Radio Positioning.
1.2 Short and Medium-range Radiolocation Technologies.
1.3 Overview of the Book.
2 Radio Propagation.
2.1 Statistical Multipath Theory.
2.2 Radio Propagation Characteristics at Different Distance Scales.
2.4 Excess Delays in Radio Propagation.
2.5 Antenna Effects.
3 Signal Detection by Correlation.
3.1 Transmitter Signal.
3.2 Receiver Signal Processing.
4 Bandlimited Time-of-Arrival Measurements.
4.1 Wideband Multipath Theorem.
4.2 Bandlimited Correlogram Characteristics.
4.3 Model of Bandlimited Correlogram.
4.4 Peak-Tracking Algorithm Performance.
4.5 Leading-edge Projection Tracking Algorithm.
4.6 Leading-edge Ratio Algorithm.
4.7 Multipath Phase.
4.8 Performance Summary of Tracking Algorithms.
5 Fundamentals of Positioning Systems.
5.1 Navigation Systems and Tracking Systems.
5.2 System Architecture.
5.3 Overview of Position Determination.
5.4 Indoor Performance Issues.
6 Noniterative Position Determination.
6.1 Basic Positioning Methods.
6.2 Linearization-Based Least-Squares Methods.
6.3 Spherical Interpolation Approach.
6.4 Quasi-Least-Squares Solution.
6.5 Linear-Correction Least-Squares Approach.
7 Iterative Position Determination.
7.1 Iterative Algorithms.
7.2 Filtering-based Methods.
7.3 Data Smoothing.
8 Positioning Accuracy Evaluation.
8.1 Accuracy Measures.
8.2 Cramer–Rao Lower Bound in Line-of-Sight Conditions.
8.3 Derivation of Cramer–Rao Lower Bound in Non-Line-of-Sight Conditions.
8.4 Approximate Variance of Linear Least-Squares Algorithm.
8.5 Accuracy Comparison.
Annex 8.A: Components of the Fisher Information Matrix.
9 Geometric Dilution of Precision Analysis.
9.1 Geometric Error Analysis.
9.2 Statistical Error Analysis.
9.3 Calculation of Geometric Dilution of Precision.
9.4 Accuracy Probabilities.
9.5 Special Cases: Analytical Solutions to Geometric Dilution of Precision.
9.6 Geometric Dilution of Precision Performance.
10 Multipath Mitigation.
10.1 Residual-Weighting-based Method.
10.2 Filtering-based Method.
10.3 Constrained Optimization.
10.4 Scatterer-based Method.
10.5 Error Statistics.
10.6 Propagation-Model-based Method.
10.7 Pattern Matching.
10.8 Performance Analysis.
Annex 10.A: Sequential Quadratic Programming Algorithm.
Annex 10.B: Equation Coefficients.
11 Anchor-based Localization for Wireless Sensor Networks.
11.1 Characteristics of Wireless Sensor Networks.
11.2 Coarse Localization Methods.
11.3 Global Localization Methods.
11.4 Localization with Unknown Internal Delays and Clock Offsets.
12 Anchor Position Accuracy Enhancement.
12.1 Impact of Anchor Location Accuracy on Sensor Node Localization.
12.2 Line-of-Sight and Non-Line-of-Sight Propagation Models.
12.3 Anchor Position Accuracy Bound.
12.4 Accuracy Improvement Based on Distance and Angle Estimates.
12.5 Accuracy Improvement Based on Distance Estimates.
Annex 12.A: Definition of Matrix and Vector in Line-of-Sight Conditions.
Annex 12.B: Definition of Matrix and Vector in Non-Line-of-Sight Conditions.
13 Anchor-free Localization.
13.1 Robust Quads.
13.2 Multidimensional Scaling Method.
13.3 Mass–Spring Model.
13.4 Hybrid Approach.
13.5 Graphical Model.
13.6 Clustering and Stitching.
13.7 Referent Coordinate System Establishment.
13.8 Cramer–Rao Lower Bound.
13.9 Accuracy of Location Estimates.
13.10 Distance-Error-based Accuracy Measure.
13.11 Accuracy Evaluation.
14 Non-Line-of-Sight Identification.
14.1 Data Smoothing.
14.2 Distribution Tests.
14.3 Calculating Level Crossing Rate and Fade Duration.
14.4 Estimating the Rician Factor.
14.5 Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test.
14.6 Nonparametric Method.
14.7 Using Intermediate Location Estimation.
14.8 Neyman–Pearson Test.
14.9 Joint Time-of-Arrival and Received Signal Strength-based Approaches.
14.10 Angle-of-Arrival-based Methods.
Annex 14.A: Proofs of Theorems and Corollary.
Annex 14.B: Derivation of the Probability of Detection.
Appendix A: Hyperbolic Navigation.
A.1 Analytical Equations of a Hyperbola.
A.2 Solution to Hyperbolic Navigation.
A.3 Solution to Example Problem.
Appendix B: Radio Propagation Measurement Techniques.
B.1 Measurements with a Network Analyzer.
B.1.1 Measurements with a Reference Cable.
B.1.2 Calibration of Antennas.
B.1.3 Propagation Measurements.
B.2 Time-Domain Measurements.