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Groundwater Hydrology, 3rd Edition

David Keith Todd, Larry W. Mays

ISBN: 978-0-471-05937-0 August 2004 656 Pages


Continuing in its forty-year history of providing students and professionals with a thorough grounding in the science and technology of groundwater hydrology, this third edition has been completely updated to reflect the tremendous changes in the field.  A true essential reference, this book provides a unified presentation of groundwater hydrology, treating fundamental principles, methods and problems encountered in the field as a whole. 

 Since the earlier editions of this book in 1959 and 1980, the groundwater resource field has made tremendous strides in awareness of the environment, concerns and competition for water supplies, contamination of groundwater, and enhanced regulation of water resources.

 This new edition includes the many new developments that have occurred in the groundwater field. Chief among these is the role of computers, not only for organizing data and solving problems, but also in managing groundwater resources on a basin-wide basis for known or anticipated inputs and outputs.  Special focus is placed on modern groundwater modeling methods, including a detailed description of MODFLOW.

 Intended Courses:

  • Departments of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Geology, Hydrogeology
  • One or two term course called Groundwater Hydrology

Junior or senior level, or graduate level

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1.1 Scope.

1.2 Historical Background.

1.2.1 Qanats.

1.2.2 Groundwater Theories.

1.2.3 Recent Centuries.

1.3 Trends in Water Withdrawals and Use.

1.4 Utilization of Groundwater.

1.5 Groundwater in the Hydrologic Cycle.

1.5.1 Hydrologic Cycle.

1.5.2 The Groundwater System in the Hydrologic Cycle.

1.6 Hydrologic Budget.

1.7 Publication Sources.

1.7.1 Internet Resources.

1.7.2 U.S. Geological Survey Publications.

1.7.3 Publications.

1.8 Data Sources.

1.8.1 NWISWeb Data for the Nation.

1.8.2 Real-Time Data.



Example Publications of Organizations and Government Agencies.

2. Occurrence of Groundwater.

2.1 Origin and Age of Groundwater.

2.2 Rock Properties Affecting Groundwater.

2.2.1 Aquifers.

2.2.2 Porosity.

2.2.3 Soil Classification.

2.2.4 Porosity and Representative Elementary Volume.

2.2.5 Specific Surface.

2.3 Vertical Distribution of Groundwater.

2.4 Zone of Aeration.

2.4.1 Soil–Water Zone.

2.4.2 Intermediate Vadose Zone.

2.4.3 Capillary Zone.

2.4.4 Measurement of Water Content.

2.4.5 Available Water.

2.5 Zone of Saturation.

2.5.1 Specific Retention.

2.5.2 Specific Yield.

2.6 Geologic Formations as Aquifers.

2.6.1 Alluvial Deposits.

2.6.2 Limestone.

2.6.3 Volcanic Rock.

2.6.4 Sandstone.

2.6.5 Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks.

2.6.6 Clay.

2.7 Types of Aquifers.

2.7.1 Unconfined Aquifer.

2.7.2 Confined Aquifers.

2.7.3 Leaky Aquifer.

2.7.4 Idealized Aquifer.

2.8 Storage Coefficient.

2.9 Groundwater Basins/Regional Groundwater Flow Systems.

2.9.1 High Plains Aquifer.

2.9.2 Gulf Coastal Plain Aquifer System.

2.10 Springs.

2.10.1 What Are Springs?

2.10.2 Edwards Aquifer—Discharge of Springs.

2.11 Hydrothermal Phenomena.

2.11.1 Thermal Springs.

2.11.2 Geothermal Energy Resources.

2.12 Groundwater in Permafrost Regions.

2.13 Groundwater in the United States.



3. Groundwater Movement.

3.1 Darcy’s Law.

3.1.1 Experimental Verification.

3.1.2 Darcy Velocity.

3.1.3 Validity of Darcy’s Law.

3.2 Permeability.

3.2.1 Intrinsic Permeability.

3.2.2 Hydraulic Conductivity.

3.2.3 Transmissivity.

3.2.4 Hydraulic Conductivity of Geologic Materials.

3.3 Determination of Hydraulic Conductivity.

3.3.1 Formulas.

3.3.2 Laboratory Methods.

3.3.3 Tracer Tests.

3.3.4 Auger Hole Tests.

3.3.5 Pumping Tests of Wells.

3.4 Anisotropic Aquifers.

3.5 Groundwater Flow Rates.

3.6 Groundwater Flow Directions.

3.6.1 Flow Nets.

3.6.2 Flow in Relation to Groundwater Contours.

3.6.3 Flow Across a Water Table.

3.6.4 Flow Across a Hydraulic Conductivity Boundary.

3.6.5 Regional Flow Patterns.

3.7 Dispersion.

3.7.1 Concept.

3.7.2 Dispersion and Groundwater Hydrology.

3.8 Groundwater Tracers.

3.9 General Flow Equations.

3.10 Unsaturated Flow.

3.10.1 Flow Through Unsaturated Soils.

3.10.2 Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity.

3.10.3 Vertical and Horizontal Flows.

3.11 Kinematic Wave.

3.12 Infiltration: The Green–Ampt Method.



4. Groundwater and Well Hydraulics.

4.1 Steady Unidirectional Flow.

4.1.1 Confined Aquifer.

4.1.2 Unconfined Aquifer.

4.1.3 Base Flow to a Stream.

4.2 Steady Radial Flow to a Well.

4.2.1 Confined Aquifer.

4.2.2 Unconfined Aquifer.

4.2.3 Unconfined Aquifer with Uniform Recharge.

4.3 Well in a Uniform Flow.

4.4 Unsteady Radial Flow in a Confined Aquifer.

4.4.1 Nonequilibrium Well Pumping Equation.

4.4.2 Theis Method of Solution.

4.4.3 Cooper–Jacob Method of Solution.

4.4.4 Chow Method of Solution.

4.4.5 Recovery Test.

4.5 Unsteady Radial Flow in an Unconfined Aquifer.

4.6 Unsteady Radial Flow in a Leaky Aquifer.

4.7 Well Flow Near Aquifer Boundaries.

4.7.1 Well Flow Near a Stream.

4.7.2 Well Flow Near an Impermeable Boundary.

4.7.3 Well Flow Near Other Boundaries.

4.7.4 Location of Aquifer Boundary.

4.8 Multiple Well Systems.

4.9 Partially Penetrating Wells.

4.10 Well Flow for Special Conditions.



5. Water Wells.

5.1 Test Holes and Well Logs.

5.2 Methods for Constructing Shallow Wells.

5.2.1 Dug Wells.

5.2.2 Bored Wells.

5.2.3 Driven Wells.

5.2.4 Jetted Wells.

5.3 Methods for Drilling Deep Wells.

5.3.1 Cable Tool Method.

5.3.2 Rotary Method.

5.3.3 Air Rotary Method.

5.3.4 Rotary-Percussion Method.

5.3.5 Reverse-Circulation Rotary Method.

5.4 Well Completion.

5.4.1 Well Casings.

5.4.2 Cementing.

5.4.3 Screens.

5.4.4 Gravel Packs.

5.5 Well Development.

5.5.1 Pumping.

5.5.2 Surging.

5.5.3 Surging with Air.

5.5.4 Backwashing with Air.

5.5.5 Hydraulic Jetting.

5.5.6 Chemicals.

5.5.7 Hydraulic Fracturing.

5.5.8 Explosives.

5.6 Testing Wells for Yield.

5.7 Pumping Equipment.

5.7.1 Total Pumping Head.

5.7.2 Pumps for Shallow Wells.

5.7.3 Pumps for Deep Wells.

5.8 Protection of Wells.

5.8.1 Sanitary Protection.

5.8.2 Frost Protection.

5.8.3 Abandonment of Wells.

5.9 Well Rehabilitation.

5.10 Horizontal Wells.

5.10.1 Infiltration Galleries.

5.10.2 Horizontal Pipes.

5.10.3 Collector Wells.

5.11 Characteristic Well Losses.

5.11.1 Well Losses.

5.11.2 Evaluation of Well Loss.

5.12 Specific Capacity and Well Efficiency.

5.13 Slug Tests.

5.13.1 Definition.

5.13.2 Design Guidelines.

5.13.3 Performance of Slug Tests.

5.13.4 Methods for Analyzing Slug Test Data.

5.14 Slug Tests for Confined Formations.

5.14.1 Cooper, Bredehoeft, and Papadopulos Method.

5.14.2 Hvorslev Method.

5.15 Slug Tests for Unconfined Formations.

5.15.1 Bouwer and Rice Method.

5.15.2 Dagan Method.

5.15.3 KGS Model.

5.16 Slug Tests for High Conductivity Formations.

5.17 Well-Skin Effect.



6. Groundwater Levels and Environmental Influences.

6.1 Time Variations of Levels.

6.1.1 Secular Variations.

6.1.2 Seasonal Variations.

6.1.3 Short-Term Variations.

6.2 Streamflow and Groundwater Levels.

6.2.1 Bank Storage.

6.2.2 Base Flow.

6.2.3 Base Flow Recession Curve.

6.3 Fluctuations Due to Evapotranspiration.

6.3.1 Evaporation Effects.

6.3.2 Transpiration Effects.

6.3.3 Evapotranspiration Effects.

6.4 Fluctuations Due to Meteorological Phenomena.

6.4.1 Atmospheric Pressure.

6.4.2 Rainfall.

6.4.3 Wind.

6.4.4 Frost.

6.5 Fluctuations Due to Tides.

6.5.1 Ocean Tides.

6.5.2 Earth Tides.

6.6 Urbanizations.

6.7 Earthquakes

6.8 External Loads.

6.9 Land Subsidence and Groundwater.

6.9.1 Lowering of Piezometric Surface.

6.9.2 Hydrocompaction.

6.9.3 Dewatering of Organic Soils.

6.9.4 Sinkhole Formation.

6.9.5 Crustal Uplift.

6.9.6 Monitoring of Land Subsidence.

6.10 Effects of Global Climate Change on Groundwater.



7 Quality of Groundwater.

7.1 Natural Groundwater Quality.

7.2 Sources of Salinity.

7.3 Measures of Water Quality.

7.4 Chemical Analysis.

7.4.1 Concentrations by Weight.

7.4.2 Chemical Equivalence.

7.4.3 Total Dissolved Solids by Electrical Conductance.

7.4.4 Hardness.

7.5 Graphic Representations.

7.6 Physical Analysis.

7.7 Biological Analysis.

7.8 Groundwater Samples.

7.9 Water Quality Criteria.

7.9.1 Drinking Water Standards.

7.9.2 Industrial Water Criteria.

7.9.3 Irrigation Water Criteria.

7.10 Changes in Chemical Composition.

7.11 Dissolved Gases.

7.12 Temperature.

7.13 Saline Groundwater.



8 Pollution of Groundwater.

8.1 Pollution in Relation to Water Use.

8.2 Municipal Sources and Causes.

8.2.1 Sewer Leakage.

8.2.2 Liquid Wastes.

8.2.3 Solid Wastes.

8.3 Industrial Sources and Causes.

8.3.1 Liquid Wastes.

8.3.2 Tank and Pipeline Leakage.

8.3.3 Mining Activities.

8.3.4 Oil-Field Brines.

8.4 Agricultural Sources and Causes.

8.4.1 Irrigation Return Flows.

8.4.2 Animal Wastes.

8.4.3 Fertilizers and Soil Amendments.

8.4.4 Pesticides, Insecticides, and Herbicides.

8.5 Miscellaneous Sources and Causes.

8.5.1 Urbanization.

8.5.2 Spills and Surface Discharges.

8.5.3 Stockpiles.

8.5.4 Septic Tanks and Cesspools.

8.5.5 Roadway Deicing.

8.5.6 Saline Water Intrusion.

8.5.7 Interchange through Wells.

8.5.8 Surface Water.

8.6 Attenuation of Pollution.

8.6.1 Filtration.

8.6.2 Sorption.

8.6.3 Chemical Processes.

8.6.4 Microbiological Decomposition.

8.6.5 Dilution.

8.7 Distribution of Pollution Underground.

8.7.1 Hanford Site in Richland,Washington.

8.8 Mass Transport of Pollutants.

8.8.1 Transport Processes.

8.8.2 Advection–Dispersion Equation for Solute Transport in Saturated Porous Media.

8.8.3 Analytical Procedure.

8.8.4 Transport of Reactive Pollutants.

8.9 Monitoring Groundwater Quality.

8.10 Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater.

8.10.1 Remediation Goals.

8.10.2 System Design.

8.10.3 Hydraulic Containment of Groundwater.

8.10.4 Groundwater Extraction Systems.

8.10.5 Treatment of Contaminated Groundwater.

8.11 Conventional Pump-and-Treatment Systems.

8.11.1 Pump-and-Treat Remediation Strategies.

8.11.2 Characterizing Sites for Pump and Treatment Design.

8.11.3 Capture Zone Analysis.

8.11.4 Extraction/Injection Scheme Design.



9. Groundwater Flow Modeling Techniques.

9.1 Why Develop Groundwater Models?

9.2 Types of Groundwater Models.

9.3 Steps in the Development of a Groundwater Model.

9.4 Simulation of Two-Dimensional Groundwater Systems.

9.4.1 Governing Equations.

9.4.2 Finite Difference Equations.

9.4.3 Solution.

9.4.4 Case Study.

9.5 Three-Dimensional Groundwater Flow Model.

9.5.1 Derivation of Finite Difference Equations.

9.5.2 Simulation of Boundaries.

9.5.3 Vertical Discretization.

9.5.4 Hydraulic Conductance Equations.

9.6 MODFLOW-2000 Description.

9.6.1 Model Introduction.

9.6.2 Space and Time Discretization.

9.6.3 External Sources and Stresses.

9.6.4 Hydraulic Conductance—Layer-Property Flow Package (LPF).

9.6.5 Solver Packages.

9.6.6 Telescopic Mesh Refinement.

9.7 Case Study: Using MODFLOW: Lake Five-O, Florida.

9.7.1 Finite Difference Grid and Boundary Conditions.

9.7.2 Model Calibration and Sensitivity Analysis.

9.7.3 Model Results.

9.8 Particle Tracking—MODPATH.

9.8.1 What Is Particle Tracking?

9.8.2 Particle Tracking Analysis—An Application.

9.9 Example Applications and Input of MODFLOW.

9.10 Solute Transport Modeling—MOC3D.

9.10.1 Solute Transport Equation.

9.10.2 MOC3D Model.

9.11 Groundwater Modeling Software Support.

9.11.1 U.S. Geological Survey.

9.11.2 U.S. EPA Center for Exposure Assessment Modeling (CEAM).

9.11.3 International Groundwater Modeling Center (IGWMC).

9.11.4 Processors for MODFLOW.



10. Management of Groundwater.

10.1 Concepts of Basin Management.

10.1.1 Managing Groundwater Resources.

10.2 Groundwater Basin Investigations and Data Collection.

10.2.1 Topographic Data.

10.2.2 Geologic Data.

10.2.3 Hydrologic Data.

10.3 Yield.

10.3.1 Alternative Basin Yields.

10.3.2 Evaluation of Perennial Yield.

10.4 Conjunctive Use and Watershed Management.

10.5 Groundwater Management:Water Laws and Policies.

10.5.1 Water Law and Policy.

10.5.2 Arizona’s Groundwater Management Code.

10.5.3 Texas Groundwater Law.

10.6 Case Study: Groundwater Management: Examples.

10.6.1 Edwards Aquifer Management.

10.6.2 High Plains Aquifer: Conjunctive Water Use on the High Plains.

10.7 Groundwater Management Using Models.

10.7.1 What Are Groundwater Management Models?

10.7.2 Optimization Methods.

10.7.3 Types of Groundwater Management Models.

10.8 Groundwater Management Modeling: Hydraulic Management Models.

10.8.1 Steady-State One-Dimensional Problems for Confined Aquifers.

10.8.2 Steady-State One-Dimensional Problems for Unconfined Aquifers.

10.8.3 Steady-State Two-Dimensional Model for Confined Aquifers.

10.8.4 Transient One-Dimensional Problem for Confined Aquifers.

10.8.5 Steady-State Two-Dimensional Problem for Unconfined Aquifers.

10.9 Policy Evaluation and Allocation Models: Response Matrix Approach.

10.10 Optimal Control Groundwater Management Modeling.

10.11 Case Studies: Groundwater Management Modeling Applications.

10.11.1 Optimal-Control Model for Barton Springs–Edwards Aquifer, Texas.

10.11.2 Heuristic Optimization–Simulation Model for Groundwater Remediation Design: N-Springs Site, Hanford,Washington.

10.11.3 Groundwater Management Model Using Response Matrix Approach: Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin, California.



11. Surface Investigations of Groundwater.

11.1 Geologic Methods.

11.2 Remote Sensing.

11.3 Geophysical Exploration.

11.4 Electrical Resistivity Method.

11.5 Seismic Refraction Method.

11.6 Gravity and Magnetic Methods.



12. Subsurface Investigations of Groundwater.

12.1 Test Drilling.

12.1.1 Geologic Log.

12.1.2 Drilling-Time Log.

12.2 Water Level Measurement.

12.3 Geophysical Logging.

12.4 Resistivity Logging.

12.5 Spontaneous Potential Logging.

12.6 Radiation Logging.

12.6.1 Natural-Gamma Logging.

12.6.2 Gamma-Gamma Logging.

12.6.3 Neutron Logging.

12.7 Temperature Logging.

12.8 Caliper Logging.

12.9 Fluid-Conductivity Logging.

12.10 Fluid-Velocity Logging.

12.11 Miscellaneous Logging Techniques.

12.11.1 Television Logging.

12.11.2 Acoustic Logging.

12.11.3 Casing Logging.

12.12 Other Subsurface Methods.

12.13 Case Study: Oasis Valley, Nevada.



13. Artificial Recharge of Groundwater.

13.1 Concept of Artificial Recharge.

13.2 Recharge Methods.

13.2.1 Methods.

13.2.2 Recharge Rates.

13.3 Wastewater Recharge for Reuse.

13.4 Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) Systems.

13.4.1 What Are SAT Systems?

13.4.2 Operation of SAT Systems.

13.4.3 Modeling SAT Systems.

13.5 Recharge Mounds.

13.5.1 Perched Groundwater Mounds.

13.5.2 Steady-State Equations for Groundwater Mounds.

13.5.3 Hantush Equation.

13.6 Stormwater Infiltration Basin Mound Development.

13.6.1 Potential Flow Model for a Trench.

13.6.2 Potential Flow Model for Circular Basin.

13.6.3 Mound Growth.

13.6.4 Mound Recession.

13.7 Innovative Approaches.

13.7.1 Wildwood, New Jersey.

13.7.2 Orange County, California.

13.7.3 Long Island, New York.

13.7.4 Orlando, Florida.

13.7.5 Dayton, Ohio.

13.8 Induced Recharge.



14. Saline Water Intrusion in Aquifers.

14.1 Occurrence of Saline Water Intrusion.

14.2 Ghyben–Herzberg Relation Between Fresh and Saline Waters.

14.3 Shape of the Fresh–Salt Water Interface.

14.4 Structure of the Fresh–Salt Water Interface.

14.5 Effect of Wells on Seawater Intrusion.

14.6 Upconing of Saline Water.

14.7 Fresh–Salt Water Relations on Oceanic Islands.

14.8 Seawater Intrusion in Karst Terrains.

14.9 Control of Saline Water Intrusion.

14.10 Examples of Seawater Intrusion.

14.10.1 Long Island, New York.

14.10.2 Southern California.



Appendix A.

Appendix B.

Appendix C.


  • Example problems and case studies illustrating applications of the text material have been added to this edition.
  • Homework problems are now included at the end of each chapter.
  • Over 300 new illustrations and photos.
  • Both SI and U.S. Customary units are used throughout the book.
  • Expanded coverage of groundwater contamination by chemicals.
  • Special focus is placed on modern groundwater modeling methods, which are essential to managing groundwater over large areas.
  • Chapter 9 includes a detailed description of MODFLOW.
  • New references at end of each chapter provide sources for research and graduate study.
  • The example problems and homework exercises enable students to apply material in the text to realistic every day situations.
  • Describes the occurrence and movement of groundwater in its subsurface setting.
  • The development of groundwater by means of wells receives major attention both in terms of design and methods for drilling and developing wells.
  • The chemistry of groundwater is emphasized first in terms of natural conditions and then of the numerous types of contaminants which can reach groundwater.
  • Geophysical techniques, both surface and subsurface, are described for investigating underground availability of water.
  • Artificial recharge of groundwater as a conservation and storage procedure is now widely practiced and the techniques are detailed in one chapter.
  • The common problem of seawater intrusion into coastal aquifers is discussed with methods to control its advance.