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Groundwater Modeling Using Geographical Information Systems

Groundwater Modeling Using Geographical Information Systems

George F. Pinder

ISBN: 978-0-471-27553-4

Nov 2002

248 pages



Cutting-edge techniques for groundwater modeling using GIS technology

Groundwater Modeling Using Geographical Information Systems covers fundamental information on flow and mass transport modeling and demonstrates how GIS technology makes these models and analyses more accurate than ever before.

GIS technology allows for swift organization, quantification, and interpretation of large quantities of geohydrological data with computer accuracy and minimal risk of human error. This book's companion Web site provides the Princeton Transport Code, as well as the plug-in extensions required to interface this code with the Argus ONE numerical environment software enclosed with this book. Plug-in extensions for MODFLOW and MT3D computer codes can be found at the Argus ONE Web site ( The process for using the Geographic Modeling Approach (GMA) to model groundwater flow and transport is demonstrated step by step with a field example from Tucson, Arizona. The GMA is composed of the Argus ONE Geographic Information Modeling system and the Princeton Transport Code groundwater flow and transport model, interfaced through the plug-in extension available on Argus ONE.

Enhanced with more than 150 illustrations and screen captures, Groundwater Modeling Using Geographical Information Systems is a fundamental book for civil engineers, hydrologists, environmental engineers, geologists, and students in these fields, as well as software engineers working on GIS applications and environmental attorneys and regulators. When used in combination with the free modeling software, this book provides an excellent student text.


1 Flow Modeling.

1.1 Introduction.

1.2 Areal Extent of a Model.

1.3 Hydrological Boundaries to the Model.

1.4 Compilation of Geological Information.

1.4.1 Unconsolidated Environments.

1.4.2 Consolidated Rocks.

1.4.3 Metamorphic Rocks.

1.4.4 Igneous Rocks.

1.4.5 Representation of Geological Units.

1.5 Compilation of Hydrological Information.

1.5.1 Geohydrological Parameters.

1.5.2 Boundary Conditions.

1.5.3 Stresses.

1.6 Water-Table Condition.

1.6.1 Near-Surface Aquifer Zone.

1.6.2 Sharp-Interface Approximation of the Water Table.

1.6.3 Variably Saturated Water-Table Formulation.

1.6.4 Comparison of the Sharp-Interface and Variably Saturated Formulations.

1.7 Physical Dimensions of the Model.

1.7.1 Vertical Integration of the Flow Equation.

1.7.2 Free-Surface Condition.

1.8 Model Size.

1.9 Model Discretization.

1.9.1 Finite-Difference Approximations.

1.9.2 Finite-Element Approximations.

1.9.3 Two-Space Dimensional Approximations.

1.10 Finite-Difference Approximation to the Flow Equation.

1.10.1 Model Boundary Conditions.

1.10.2 Model Initial Conditions.

1.11 Finite-Element Approximation to the Flow Equation.

1.11.1 Boundary Conditions.

1.11.2 Initial Conditions.

1.12 Parameters.

1.13 Fractured and Cavernous Media.

1.14 Model Stresses.

1.14.1 Well Discharge or Recharge.

1.14.2 Rainfall.

1.14.3 Multiple Stress Periods.

1.15 Finite-Element Mesh.

1.16 Simulation.

1.16.1 Solution Algorithm.

1.16.2 Bandwidth.

1.16.3 Running PTC.

1.17 Output.

1.18 Calibration.

1.18.1 Model Building Guidelines.

1.18.2 Model Evaluation Guidelines.

1.18.3 Additional Data-Collection and Model Development Guidelines.

1.18.4 Uncertainty-Evaluation Guidelines.

1.18.5 Some Rules of Thumb.

1.19 Production Runs.

1.20 Summary.


2 Transport Modeling.

2.1 Compilation of Water-Quality Information.

2.2 Physical Dimensions.

2.3 Model Size.

2.4 Transport Equation.

2.4.1 Equilibrium or Adsorption Isotherms.

2.4.2 Mass Flux.

2.4.3 Example of Retardation.

2.5 Chemical Reactions.

2.6 Model Boundary Conditions.

2.7 Finite-Element Approximation.

2.8 Boundary Conditions

2.8.1 First-Type Boundary Condition.

2.8.2 Second-Type Boundary Condition.

2.8.3 Third-Type Boundary Condition.

2.9 Initial Conditions.

2.10 Model Parameters.

2.11 Model Stresses.

2.12 Running the Model.

2.13 Output.

2.14 Calibration.

2.15 Production Runs.

2.16 Summary.


3 Finite-Element versus Finite-Difference Simulation.

3.1 Elementary Application.

3.1.1 Groundwater Flow.

3.1.2 Groundwater Transport.

3.2 Comparison of Methods.

3.2.1 Graphical User Interfaces.

3.2.2 Model Formulation and Implementation.

3.2.3 Groundwater Flow.

3.2.4 Groundwater Transport.

3.3 Summary.