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Group Processes: Dynamics within and Between Groups, 3rd Edition

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Group Processes: Dynamics within and Between Groups, 3rd Edition

Rupert Brown, Samuel Pehrson

ISBN: 978-1-118-71931-2 September 2019 Wiley-Blackwell 344 Pages

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Description

The new edition of the classic text on group dynamics theory and research—extensively revised, expanded, and updated

Offering a critical appraisal of theory and research on groups, Group Processes: Dynamics with and Between Groups is one of the most respected texts in the field. This comprehensive volume covers all the essential dynamics of group processes and intergroup relations, ranging from group formation, norms, social influence and leadership to group aggression, prejudice, solidarity, intergroup contact and collective action. Contemporary examples and plentiful charts, graphs, and illustrations complement discussions of the latest themes and current controversies in group psychology. 

Now in its third edition, this book has been thoroughly revised with a significant amount of new and updated content. New topics include the contribution of groups to health and wellbeing, group-based emotions, hierarchy and oppression, intergroup helping and solidarity, acculturation and reconciliation. Sections on social influence, crowd behavior, leadership, prejudice, collective action and intergroup contact have been comprehensively revised and updated to reflect two decades of development in these fields. Three inter-linked themes—social identity, social context, and social action—illustrate the influence of groups on self and self-worth, the meaning and consequences of membership in groups, and how groups can be vehicles for members to achieve change in their environments. A key text in the field for over thirty years, Group Processes: 

  • Offers broad, balanced coverage of group processes, including in-depth examination of intergroup relations
  • Incorporates theoretical themes inspired by the social identity perspective
  • Includes topical examples drawn from the world of politics, popular culture, and sports
  • Provides up-to-date content on major new developments in the field
  • Integrates modern theory, current research, and classic sources

Group Processes: Dynamics with and Between Groups, 3rd Edition is ideal for core reading in undergraduate and postgraduate courses in social psychology, particularly in modules dedicated to group processes and intergroup relations.

Preface xi

1 The Reality of Groups 1

Definition 1

The Individual–Group Relationship 2

The Interpersonal-Group Continuum 4

Three Unifying Themes: Social Identity, Social Context and Social Action 6

Summary 11

Further Reading 12

References 12

2 Group Formation and Other Elementary Group Processes 15

Interdependence 15

All in the Same Boat: Interdependence of Fate 16

Working with Others: Task Interdependence 17

Social Categorisation 19

From Individuals to a Group: Entitativity 19

Us and Them: Intergroup Differentiation and Intragroup Assimilation 22

When ‘We’ Deserve More than ‘Them’: Minimal Conditions for Intergroup Discrimination 23

Why Do They (and We) Look all the Same? Perceived Intragroup Assimilation (Homogeneity) 26

On being Similar or Different but still a Group: Individuality, Interaction, and Entitativity 28

Not Only in Our Heads: The Pragmatic and Rhetorical Use of Categories 30

Joining and Interacting in Groups: Some Elementary Group Processes 31

Joining Groups 31

From Getting Together to Sticking Together: Group Cohesion 36

What Goes on in Groups? Achieving the Task and Maintaining Relationships 41

Summary 42

Further Reading 43

References 43

3 Reaching Agreement in Groups 51

The Acquisition and Development of Group Norms 51

The Acquisition of Group Norms 52

Why People need Norms: Individual Functions of Group Norms 53

Why Groups need Norms: Social Functions of Norms 55

Stability and Change 56

The Power of the Majority 58

The Pervasiveness of Conformity 59

Why do People Conform? 61

Standing Out from the Crowd: On being a Deviate 65

Going to Extremes: Reaching Decisions in Groups 70

Explanations of Group Polarisation 71

Concluding Remarks on Group Polarisation 76

Summary 77

Further Reading 78

References 78

4 Innovation and Change in Groups 85

Minority Influence 85

Majority–Minority Influence is a Dynamic Process 88

Social Categorisation and Minority Influence: Which Group does the Minority Belong to? 91

Two Influence Processes or One? 91

Concluding Comments 99

Leadership 100

Coercion and Reward 100

Charisma 102

Leadership Styles 105

Interaction of Leader Style and Situation 106

Leaders as Committed Group Members 109

Leader Prototypicality 110

Serving Group Interests 112

‘Entrepreneurs’ and ‘Embedders’ of Identity 113

Authority 115

Summary 116

Further Reading 117

References 117

5 The Effectiveness of Groups 124

Group Productivity 125

Does the Presence of Others Help or Hinder Performance? 125

Are Two Heads (or Bodies) better than One? 126

Potential and Actual Productivity: Theories of Group Deficit 128

Two Heads (or Bodies) really can be better than One: The Benefits of Working in Groups 133

Group Decision-Making 140

Modeling Group Decisions: Social Decision Schemes Theory 140

The Quality of Decision-Making Process 142

Groups can be Good for You 146

Resilience 146

Health and Well-being 150

Summary 152

Further Reading 153

Group Productivity 153

Group Decision-Making 153

Health and Well-being Benefits of Groups 153

References 154

6 The Morality of Groups 161

Are Groups really more Aggressive than Individuals? Collective Aggression and Violence 161

Deindividuation 162

Experimental Evidence concerning Groups and Antisocial Behaviour 163

The Stanford Prison Experiment 166

How Group Norms shape the Nature of Crowd Violence 169

Identity Transformation and Emergence of Conflict in Crowds 171

Online Aggression 172

Groups and Helping Behaviour 174

The Bystander Effect and its Limits 174

Solidarity within the Group 176

Helping the Outgroup 182

Summary 184

Further Reading 185

References 186

7 Conflict and Inequality 191

Intergroup Relations and Real Group Interests 192

The Development of an Intergroup Perspective 192

The Summer Camp Studies 194

Lessons from the Summer Camps 196

Extending the Realistic Conflict Approach 197

‘Real World’ Evidence 197

Stereotypes and Intergroup Relations 198

Fear, Anger, Disgust, and Other Emotions 201

The Outgroup as Sub-human 203

Hierarchy and Oppression 206

Divide and Rule 206

Consensual Discrimination 207

Ambivalent Sexism 208

Outgroup Favoritism and System Justification 210

Social Dominance Theory 212

Social Dominance Orientation 213

Evaluating Social Dominance Theory 216

Integrating SDO and RWA 218

Summary 219

Further Reading 220

References 220

8 Rebellion and Social Change 227

Angry Rejection of the Status Quo 228

Anger 230

Social Identity Theory 235

Individual Mobility 236

Social Creativity 239

Changing the Dimension of Comparison 240

Downward Social Comparison 242

Redefining the Meaning of the Devalued Attribute 242

Social Competition 243

Winning the Solidarity of the Advantaged 243

Resentment and Backlash 244

Experiencing Illegitimate Privilege 246

Intergroup Contact and Collective Action 248

Consequences of Collective Action 250

Summary 252

Further Reading 253

References 253

9 Bringing Groups Together 261

Getting to Know You: Intergroup Contact and Prejudice Reduction 262

Elaborating the Contact Hypothesis 263

How to make Contact Work Better: Decategorisation, Categorisation, or Recategorisation? 263

Understanding how Contact Works: The Role of Emotion 268

Indirect Forms of Contact: Extended, Vicarious and Imagined 270

Intergroup Contact and its Critics 275

“From Both Sides Now”: The Importance of both Victim and Perpetrator Emotions 279

Group-Based Emotions: Guilt, Shame, Victimhood, and Forgiveness 283

Living Together or Living Apart: The Challenges of Diversity and Multi-culturalism 287

Acculturation and Well-Being in Minority Groups 288

Acculturation and Intergroup Relations 291

Summary 294

Further Reading 295

References 295

Name Index 309

Subject Index 325