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Guide to Good Practice in the Management of Time in Major Projects: Dynamic Time Modelling, 2nd Edition

Guide to Good Practice in the Management of Time in Major Projects: Dynamic Time Modelling, 2nd Edition

CIOB (The Chartered Institute of Building)

ISBN: 978-1-119-42843-5

Feb 2018, Wiley-Blackwell

248 pages

$56.99

Description

A practical treatise on the processes and standards required for the effective time management of major construction projects 

This book uses logical step-by-step procedures and examples from inception and risk appraisal—through design and construction to testing and commissioning—to show how an effective and dynamic time model can be used to manage the risk of delay in the completion of construction projects. Integrating with the CIOB major projects contract, the new edition places increased emphasis on the dynamic time model as the way to manage time and cost in major projects, as opposed to the use of a static target baseline program. It includes a new chapter distinguishing the principal features of the dynamic time model and its development throughout the life of a project from inception to completion.

Guide to Good Practice in the Management of Time in Major Projects—Dynamic Time Modelling, 2nd Edition features new appendices covering matters such as complexity in construction and engineering projects, productivity guides (including specific references to the UK, Australia, and the USA), and a number of case studies dealing with strategic time management and high-density, resource-based scheduling. 

  • Provides guidance for the strategic  management of time in construction and civil engineering projects
  • Demonstrates how to use a dynamic time model to manage time pro-actively in building and civil engineering projects
  • Sets out processes and standards to be achieved ensuring systematic documentation and quality control of time management
  • Integrates with the CIOB major projects contract

Guide to Good Practice in the Management of Time in Major Projects—Dynamic Time Modelling, 2nd Edition is an ideal handbook for project and program management professionals working on civil engineering and construction projects, including those from contractors, clients, and project management consultants.

 

Preface xi

Introduction to Second Edition xiii

Acknowledgements xv

Table of Figures xvii

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Core principles of time management 1

1.2 The dynamic time model 4

1.3 Mission statement 6

1.4 Genesis of the Guide 7

1.5 Purpose of the Guide 7

1.6 Risk management 8

1.7 Planning and scheduling 9

1.8 The planning method statement 10

1.9 The project scheduler 10

1.10 Time management 11

1.11 Building information modelling 12

2 Strategy 13

2.1 Planning method statement strategy 13

2.2 Consultant and contractor selection strategy 14

2.3 Contracting strategy 15

2.4 Project planning strategy 16

2.5 Progress record strategy 17

2.6 Schedule design strategy 18

2.7 Schedule update strategy 18

2.8 Schedule revision strategy 19

2.9 Time risk management strategy 20

2.10 Schedule quality control strategy 22

2.11 Building information modelling strategy 22

2.12 Communication strategy 23

3 The dynamic time model 25

3.1 Introduction 25

3.2 The initial development schedule 27

3.3 The updated development schedule 28

3.4 Calculating the predicted effect of intervening events on the development schedule 30

3.5 Planning to overcome the predicted effects of an intervening event 31

3.6 Revision of the development schedule 32

3.7 Time management of pre-construction activities 33

3.8 The initial working schedule 33

3.9 The updated working schedule 34

3.10 Calculating the predicted effect of intervening events on the working schedule 36

3.11 Planning to overcome the predicted effects of an intervening event 37

3.12 Revision of the working schedule 38

3.13 Continuing time management of construction activities 39

3.14 Benchmarking 40

4 Developing the dynamic time model 41

4.1 Introduction 41

4.2 Schedule density design 42

Scheduling at Low Density 43

Scheduling at Medium Density 43

Scheduling at High Density 44

4.3 Planning method statement 44

Planning method statement at Low Density 45

Planning method statement at Medium Density 46

Planning method statement at High Density 46

Documentation of corrections 46

4.4 Software considerations 47

4.5 The structure of the schedule 48

4.6 Schedule types 48

The Development schedule 49

Tender schedule 49

Working schedule 49

Occupational commissioning schedule 50

As-built schedule 50

4.7 Schedule design 50

4.8 Schedule integration 51

Schedule subcontracting 52

Master schedule and subproject 52

Milestone management 53

4.9 Risk and contingencies 53

Contingencies at Low Density 54

Contingencies at Medium Density 56

Contingencies at High Density 56

4.10 Scheduling techniques 56

Bar charts 57

Line-of-balance diagram 57

Time chainage diagram 58

Arrow diagram method (ADM) 59

Precedence diagram method (PDM) 60

Linked bar chart 61

Building information modelling 61

4.11 Work

breakdown structure 62

4.12 Schedule

communication 64

Executive summary report 66

Senior management report 66

Project manager’s report 66

Section manager’s report 66

Short-term look-ahead report 67

4.13 Calendars 67

Calendars at Low Density 70

Calendars at Medium Density 70

Calendars at High Density 70

4.14 Work type definition 70

4.15 Activity identifier coding 70

Activity ID at Low Density 71

Activity ID at Medium Density 71

Activity ID at High Density 71

Activity ID trailing numbers 72

Simplified Activity ID 73

4.16 Activity description 74

Descriptions at Low Density 74

Descriptions at Medium Density 74

Descriptions at High Density 74

4.17 Activity content codes 75

4.18 Activity cost codes 76

Cost coding at Low Density 77

Cost coding at Medium Density 77

Cost coding at High Density 77

4.19 Activity duration 78

Estimating durations using industry standards 79

Estimating durations using benchmarking 79

Estimating activity duration by comparison with other projects 79

Calculating activity duration from resources and work content 80

Specified activity duration 80

Activity duration at Low Density 81

Activity durations at Medium Density 81

Activity durations at High Density 81

4.20 Resource scheduling 82

Resources at Low Density and Medium Density 83

Resources at High Density 83

Strategic resource allocation 85

4.21 Permits and licences 86

4.22 Utilities and third-party projects 87

4.23 Schedule logic 87

Engineering logic 87

Preferential logic 88

Resource logic 88

Zonal logic 88

4.24 Density logic 88

4.25 Activity logic 89

Start-to-start 89

Finish-to-finish 89

Finish-to-start 90

Start-to-finish 90

Computational inconsistencies 90

4.26 Lags 90

Lagged finish-to-finish 91

Lagged finish-to-start 91

Lagged start-to-start 92

Lagged start-to-start and finish-to-finish 92

Negative lag 93

Lags at Low Density 93

Lags at Medium Density 93

Lags at High Density 93

4.27 Logical constraints 94

Flexible constraints 94

Moderate constraints 94

Inflexible constraints 95

Inflexible combinations of constraints 96

4.28 Float 96

Free float 97

Total float 97

Negative float 97

4.29 Critical path 97

4.30 Schedule quality assurance 99

Review for buildability 100

Review for schedule content 100

Review for schedule integrity 102

Review for constraints 103

Review for open ends 103

Review for long lags 103

Review for negative lags 104

Review for ladders 104

Review for scheduling options 105

Review for critical paths 105

5 Managing the dynamic time model 107

5.1 Introduction 107

5.2 Data communication systems 109

5.3 Building information modelling 110

5.4 Record-keeping 111

Spreadsheet-recorded data 111

Database-recorded data 111

Record types 114

5.5 Progress records 114

Progress record content 114

Activity identification data 115

Activity description 115

Date of record 115

The resource 115

Start and finish dates 116

Author of the record 116

Progress data 116

Quality control records 117

Information flow records 117

5.6 Updating the schedule 118

5.7 Schedule review and revision 119

Review for better information 120

Better design information 120

Better procurement information 120

Refinements to work content 120

Review for short-term work 120

Change in methodology 121

Repetitive activities 121

Change in activity descriptions 122

Change in activity durations 122

Change in logic 122

Change in cost profile 122

Consequential change in criticality 123

5.8 Change control 124

Identifying intervening events 124

Voluntary and implied variations and other instructed changes 126

Variations 126

Prime cost and provisional sums 126

Employer’s acts or omissions 127

Acts or omissions of third parties 129

Neutral events 129

Disruption 129

Calculating the effect of intervening events 129

5.9 Progress monitoring 131

Schedule comparison 131

Baseline target schedule (static) 132

Variable baseline target (dynamic) 133

Delay caused by a contractor’s risk event 133

Delay caused by an employer’s risk event 134

Jagged line 134

Count the squares 134

Milestone monitoring 135

Cash-flow monitoring 136

Earned-value management 136

Resource monitoring 138

Building information modelling 138

5.10 Acceleration and recovery 138

6 Communicating the dynamic time model 141

6.1 Introduction 141

6.2 Proactive communication: promoting the plan 141

6.3 Reactive communication: reporting 142

6.4 Report types 143

Contractual notice 143

Managerial reports 145

Executive summary 145

6.5 Reporting formats 147

6.6 Feedback and benchmarking 147

APPENDICES 151

Appendix 1 – Time risks which may be borne by the employer 151

Appendix 2 – Case studies in strategic planning 155

Appendix 3 – The nature of complex projects 167

Appendix 4 – The dynamic time model – a flow chart 169

Appendix 5 – Case studies in high density scheduling contents 171

Appendix 6 – Desirable attributes of scheduling software 177

Appendix 7 – Industry productivity guides 187

Appendix 8 – Sample notice of delay 189

Glossary of terms 191

Index 213