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Guidelines for Fire Protection in Chemical, Petrochemical, and Hydrocarbon Processing Facilities



Guidelines for Fire Protection in Chemical, Petrochemical, and Hydrocarbon Processing Facilities

CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)

ISBN: 978-0-470-92503-4 August 2010 480 Pages

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While there are many resources available on fire protection and prevention in chemical petrochemical and petroleum plants—this is the first book that pulls them all together in one comprehensive resource. This book provides the tools to develop, implement, and integrate a fire protection program into a company or facility’s Risk Management System. This definitive volume is a must-read for loss prevention managers, site managers, project managers, engineers and EHS professionals.

Note: CD-ROM/DVD and other supplementary materials are not included as part of eBook file.




Chapter 1. Introduction.

1.1. Scope.

1.2. Who Will Benefit from This Guideline?

1.2.1. What Is Fire Protection?

1.2.2. Examples.

1.3. Relation to Other CCPS Guidelines and Resources.

Chapter 2. Management Overview.

2.1. Management Commitment.

2.2. Integration with Other Management Systems.

2.3. Balancing Protection.

2.4. Cost-Benefit.

Chapter 3. Fire Protection Strategy.

3.1. Key Factors in a Fire Protection Strategy.

3.1.1. Acceptable Loss.

3.1.2. Cost of Fires.

3.1.3. Insurance Coverage.

3.1.4. Installed Systems versus Emergency Response.

3.1.5. Prescriptive versus Performance-Based Design.

3.2. Developing a Fire Protection Strategy.

3.3. Integration with Other Management Systems.

3.4. Integration with the Lifecycle of a Facility.

3.4.1. Design.

3.4.2. Construction and Commissioning.

3.4.3. Operations.

3.4.4. Decommissioning.

Chapter 4. Overview of Fire Prevention Elements.

4.1. Audit Program.

4.1.1. The Audit Process.

4.1.2. Qualifications and Staffing.

4.1.3. Frequency of Audits.

4.1.4. Application to Fire Protection.

4.2. Layout and Spacing.

4.3. Control of Ignition Sources.

4.3.1. Electrical Area Classification.

4.3.2. Personal Ignition Sources.

4.3.3. Hot Work.

4.3.4. Static Electricity.

4.4. Employee Training.

4.5. Housekeeping.

4.5.1. Housekeeping Program.

4.5.2. Process Area Housekeeping.

4.5.3. Dust  Control.

4.5.4. Inappropriate Storage and Handling.

4.5.5. Housekeeping and Equipment.

4.5.6. Cleaning Materials.

4.6. Incident Investigation.

4.6.1. Incident Investigation Process.

4.6.2. Application to Fire Prevention.

4.7. Inherently Safer Design.

4.8. Plant Maintenance.

4.8.1. Poor Maintenance.

4.8.2. Good Maintenance Program Elements.

4.9. Management of Change.

4.9.1. Personnel Changes.

4.9.2. Process Changes.

4.9.3. Maintenance Turnarounds.

4.10. Material Hazards.

4.10.1. Materials Hazard Evaluation Program.

4.10.2. Material Safety Data Sheets.

4.11. Alarm and Surveillance.

4.11.1. Security.

Chapter 5. Fire Hazard Analysis.

5.1. Hazardous Chemicals and Processes.

5.2. Recognize What You Want to Understand.

5.3. Identification of Inventories.

5.4. Define Fire Scenarios.

5.5. Calculate Potential Fire Hazard.

5.5.1. Ignition and Combustion.

5.5.2. Heat Transfer.

5.5.3. Fire Growth and Heat Release.

5.5.4. Solid Materials.

5.5.5. Enclosure Effects.

5.6. Flash Fires.

5.7. Fireballs.

5.8. Liquid or pool Fires.

5.8.1. Release Rate.

5.8.2. Pool Size.

5.8.3. Flame Height.

5.8.4. Duration of Burning Pools.

5.8.5. Heat Transfer.

5.8.6. Convective Heat Transfer above the Plume.

5.9. Gas and Jet Fires.

5.9.1. Estimating Discharge rates.

5.9.2. Jet Flame Size.

5.9.3. Heat Transfer.

5.9.4. Radiative Exposure.

5.10. Solid Fires.

5.11. Fire Impact to Personnel, Structures, and Equipment.

5.11.1. Impact to Personnel.

5.11.2. Impact to Structures.

5.11.3. Thermal and Nonthermal Impact on Electrical and Electronic Equipment.

5.11.4. Impact on the Environment.

5.12. Examples.

5.12.1. Example-Warehouse Pool Fire (Indoor).

5.12.2. Example-Process Jet Fire.

5.12.3. Example-Storage Tank Fire.

5.12.4. Example-Flowing Pool Fire.

Chapter 6. Fire Risk Assessment.

6.1. Fire Risk Assessment Overview.

6.2. Fire Risk Assessment Methodology.

6.2.1. Process Information.

6.2.2. Fire Hazard Identification.

6.2.3. Fire Hazard Analysis.

6.2.4. Likelihood.

6.2.5. Risk.

6.2.6. Other Risks.

6.2.7. Risk Tolerance.

6.2.8. Risk Reduction Measures.

6.2.9. Reassessment of Risk.

Chapter 7. Fire Protection Fundamentals.

7.1. General Design Criteria.

7.1.1. Automatic versus Manual Activation.

7.1.2. Isolation.

7.1.3. Depressurization.

7.1.4. Approved/Listed Equipment.

7.1.5. Qualification and Competence of Personnel.

7.1.6. Life Safety.

7.2. Fire Control

7.2.1. Type of Fires.

7.2.2. General Control Methods.

7.3. Passive Protection Systems.

7.3.1. Spacing and Layout.

7.3.2. Fireproofing.

7.3.3. Containment and Drainage.

7.3.4. Electrical Area Classification.

7.3.5. Ventilation/Exhaust.

7.3.6. Static Electricity, Lightning, and Stray Current Protection.

7.4. Active Protection Systems.

7.4.1. Water Supply.

7.4.2. Fire Water Demand.

7.4.3. Water Distribution.

7.4.4. Fire Water Pumps.

7.4.5. Detection and Alarm.

7.4.6. Gas Sensing Detectors.

7.4.7. Sprinklers.

7.4.8. Water Spray Systems.

7.4.9. Water Mist Systems.

7.4.10. Foam Systems.

7.4.11. Foam-Water Deluge and Water Spray Systems.

7.4.12. Clean Agents.

7.4.13. Carbon Dioxide Systems.

7.4.14. Dry Chemical.

7.4.15. Steam Snuffing.

7.4.16. Portable Fire Suppression Equipment.

Chapter 8. Specific Design Guidance.

8.1. Process.

8.1.1. Process Structures and Areas.

8.1.2. Drainage and Containment for Process Structures and Areas.

8.1.3. Flammable Gas Detection Systems.

8.1.4. Fixed Fire Detection.

8.1.5. Fire Protection.

8.1.6. Structural Steel Protection.

8.1.7. Manual Firefighting Equipment.

8.1.8. Process Vessels.

8.1.9. Columns, Scrubbers, and Reactors.

8.1.10. Isolation Valves.

8.1.11. Fired Heaters.

8.1.12. Heat Exchangers.

8.1.13. Pumps.

8.1.14. Compressors.

8.1.15. Cable Trays.

8.1.16. Pipe Racks and Piping.

8.1.17. Pipe Trenches.

8.2. Storage.

8.2.1. Storage Tanks.

8.2.2. Unstable/Reactive Material Storage.

8.2.3. Outdoor Storage.

8.3. Buildings.

8.3.1. Control Buildings.

8.3.2. Computer Rooms.

8.3.3. Laboratories.

8.3.4. MCCs, Substation Rooms, and Buildings.

8.3.5. Clean Rooms.

8.3.6. Warehouse Protection.

8.3.7. Temporary Buildings and Office Trailers.

8.4. Loading Racks and Marine Terminals.

8.4.1. General.

8.4.2. Loading Racks.

8.4.3. Marine Terminals.

8.5. Utilities.

8.5.1. Cooling Towers.

8.5.2. Air Compressors.

8.5.3. Electric Generators.

8.5.4. Boilers and Thermal Oxidizers.

8.5.5. Transformers.

8.5.6. Waste Handling.

Chapter 9. Installation of Fire Protection Systems.

9.1. Approval Process.

9.1.1. External.

9.1.2. Internal.

9.2. Sequence.

9.3. Timing.

9.4. Selection of Installation Contractors.

9.5. Installing the System.

9.6. Monitoring of the Installation.

9.7. Managing Field Modifications During Installation.

9.8. Acceptance Testing.

9.8.1. Water Supply Systems.

9.8.2. Fire Water Pumps.

9.8.3. Water Tanks.

9.8.4. Sprinkler Systems.

9.8.5. Water Spray Systems.

9.8.6. Carbon Dioxide Systems.

9.8.7. Foam-Water Sprinklers and Water Spray Systems.

9.8.8. Clean Agent Systems.

9.8.9. Foam Systems.

Chapter 10. Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance.

10.1. Ownership of Fire Protection Systems.

10.2. Qualifications of Personnel.

10.2.1. ire Protection Focal Point.

10.2.2. Inspection Personnel.

10.2.3. Testing and Maintenance Personnel.

10.2.4. Fire Protection Service Companies.

10.3. Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance Programs.

10.3.1. Inspections.

10.3.2. Testing.

10.3.3. Maintenance.

10.3.4. Identification of Deficiencies.

10.3.5. Frequencies of Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance.

10.3.6. Documentation of Inspection and Testing.

10.3.7. Impairment Handling.

10.4. Inspection and Testing requirements.

10.4.1. Fire Protection Systems and Equipment Covered.

10.4.2. Water-Based.

10.4.3. Fire Water Distribution System.

10.4.4. Fire Pumps.

10.4.5. Foam Systems.

10.4.6. Portable Fire Extinguishers.

10.4.7. Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems.

10.4.8. Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems.

10.4.9. Clean Agent Systems.

10.4.10. Mobile Fire Equipment.

10.4.11. Fireproofing.

10.5. Inspection Checklist Examples.

Chapter 11. Fire Emergency Response.

11.1. considerations for Emergency Response Organizations.

11.1.1. Response Effectiveness.

11.1.2. Management Issues.

11.1.3. Cost Evaluation Factors.

11.2. Develop Organization Plan.

11.3. Outside Responders.

11.3.1. Integration of the Facility and Community Response Organization ICS.

11.4. Training and Drills.

11.4.1. Training.

11.4.2. Drills and Exercises.

11.4.3. Critiques.

11.5. Notification.

11.6. Operating Procedures for Fire Emergency Response Equipment.

11.7. Fire Pre-Plans.

A. Case Histories.


Case History 1. Large Vessel Explosion.

Case History 2. Pipe Rupture Leads to an LPG Tank BLEVE.

Case History 3. Fire Turns into an Ecological Disaster.

Case History 4. Exchanger Leaks, Burns Cooling Tower.

Case History 5. Insufficient Sprinkler Density.

Case History 6. Jet Fire.

Case History 7. Internal Column Fire.

Case History 8. electrical and Instrumentation Room Explosion.

B. Understand Fires.

B1. Introduction.

B2. Fire Triangle.

B2.1. Fuel.

B2.2. Oxygen.

B2.3. Heat.

B3. Common Terms for the Flammability of Materials.

B3.1. Flash Point.

B3.2. Fire Point.

B3.3. Flammability Limits.

B3.4. Autoignition.

B3.5. Minimum Ignition Energy.

B3.6. Burning Velocity.

B3.7. Stoichiometric Ratio.

B4. Modes of Heat Transfer.

B4.1. Conduction.

B4.2. convection.

B4.3. Radiation.

B5. Effects of Fire Confinement.

B5.1. Confinement of Combustion Products.

B5.2. Restrictions to Ventilation.

B5.3. Heat Fluxes Within the Module.

B6. Hazardous Chemicals and Processes.

B6.1. Gases.

B6.2. Liquids.

B6.3. Hazardous Chemicals.

B6.4. Other Hazardous Effects.

B6.5. Process Fires.

C. Computer Tools for Design.

C1. Introduction.

C2. Evolution of Computer Fire Modeling.

C3. Computer Model Applications.

C4. Compartment Fire Simulations.

C4.1. The Zone Model.

C4.2. The Field Model.

C4.3. The Post-Flashover Model.

C5. Egress/Evacuation Models.

C6. Smoke Movement Models.

C7. Thermal/Structural response Models.

C8. Conglomerate/Miscellaneous Fire Models.

C9. Fire Models and Analytical Tools Specific to the Petrochemical Industry.

C9.1. Public Domain/Unrestricted.

C9.2. Restricted.

D. Sample Fire Pre-Plan.


American Petroleum Institute (API) References.

Center for chemical Process Safety (CCPS) References.

National Fire Protection Association References.



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