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Handbook of 3D Integration, Volumes 1 and 2: Technology and Applications of 3D Integrated Circuits

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$205.00

Handbook of 3D Integration, Volumes 1 and 2: Technology and Applications of 3D Integrated Circuits

Philip Garrou (Editor), Christopher Bower (Editor), Peter Ramm (Editor)

ISBN: 978-3-527-33265-6 October 2012 799 Pages

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Description

The first encompassing treatise of this new and very important field puts the known physical limitations for classic 2D microelectronics
into perspective with the requirements for further microelectronics developments and market necessities. This two-volume handbook
presents 3D solutions to the feature density problem, addressing all important issues, such as wafer processing, die bonding, packaging
technology, and thermal aspects. It begins with an introductory part, which defines necessary goals, existing issues and relates 3D integration
to the semiconductor roadmap of the industry. Before going on to cover processing technology and 3D structure fabrication strategies in
detail. This is followed by fields of application and a look at the future of 3D integration.

The editors have assembled contributions from key academic and industrial players in the field, including Intel, Micron, IBM, Infineon,
Qimonda, NXP, Philips, Toshiba, Semitool, EVG, Tezzaron, Lincoln Labs, Fraunhofer, RPI, IMEC, CEA-LETI and many others.
Volume 1

PREFACE
INTRODUCTION TO 3D INTEGRATION
Introduction
Historical Evolution of Stacked Wafer Concepts
3D Packaging vs 3D Integration
Non-TSV 3D Stacking Technologies

DRIVERS FOR 3D INTEGRATION
Introduction
Electrical Performance
Power Consumption and Noise
Form Factor
Lower Cost
Application Based Drivers

OVERVIEW OF 3D INTEGRATION PROCESS TECHNOLOGY
3D Integration Terminology
Processing Sequences
Technologies for 3D Integration

PART I: Through Silicon Via Fabrication

DEEP REACTIVE ION ETCHING OF THROUGH SILICON VIAS
Introduction
DRIE Equipment and Characterization
DRIE Processing
Practical Solutions in Via Etching
Concluding Remarks

LASER ABLATION
Introduction
Laser Technology for 3D Packaging
For Si Substrate
Results for 3D Chip Stacking
Reliabilities
The Future

SIO2
Introduction
Dielectric CVD
Dielectric Film Properties
3D-Specifics Regarding SiO2 Dielectrics
Concluding Remarks

INSULATION -
ORGANIC DIELECTRICS
Parylene
Plasma-Polymerized BCB
Spray-Coated Organic Insulators
Laser-Drilled Organics
Concluding Remarks

COPPER PLATING
Introduction
Copper Plating Equipment
Copper Plating Processes
Factors Affecting Copper Plating
Plating Chemistries
Plating Process Requirements
Summary

METALLIZATION BY CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION OF W AND CU
Introduction
Commercial Precursors
Deposition Process Flow
Complete TSV Metallization Including Filling and Etchback/CMP
Conclusions

PART II: Wafer Thinning and Bonding Technology

FABRICATION, PROCESSING AND SINGULATION OF THIN WAFERS
Applications for Thin Silicon Dies
Principal Facts: Thinning and Wafer Bow
Grinding and Thinning
Stability and Flexibility
Chip Thickness, Theoretical Model, Macroscopic Features
Stabilizing the Thin Wafer: Tapes and Carrier Systems
Separating the Chips: Dicing Influencing the Stability
Conclusions
Summary

OVERVIEW OF BONDING TECHNOLOGIES FOR 3D INTEGRATION
Introduction
Direct Bonding
Adhesive and Solder Bonding
Comparison of the Different Bonding Technologies

CHIP-TO-WAFER AND WAFER-TO-WAFER INTEGRATION SCHEMES
Decision Criteria for 3D Integration
Enabling Technologies
Integration Schemes for 3D Interconnect
Conclusion

POLYMER ADHESIVE BONDING TECHNOLOGY
Polymer Adhesive Bonding Principle
Polymer Adhesive Bonding Requirements and Materials
Wafer Bonding Technology Using Polymer Adhesives
Bonding Characterizations
Conclusions

BONDING WITH INTERMETALLIC COMPOUNDS
Introduction
Technological Concepts
Conclusion

Volume 2

PART III: Integration Processes

COMMERCIAL ACTIVITY
Introduction
Chip-on-Chip Activity
Imaging Chips with TSV
Memory
Microprocessors & Misc. Applications

WAFER-LEVEL 3D SYSTEM INTEGRATION
Introduction
Wafer-Level 3D System Integration Technologies
Reliability Issues
Conclusions

INTERCONNECT PROCESS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS
Introduction
TSV Process Flow
Chip Assembly
System Integration
Summary

VERTICAL INTERCONNECTION BY ASET
Introduction
Fabrication Process Overview

Via Filling by Cu Electrodeposition
Handling of Thin Wafer
3D Chip Stacking
Thermal Performance of Chip Stack Module
Electric Performance of Vertical Interconnection
Practical Application of Through-vias
Conclusion

3D INTEGRATION AT CEA-LETI
Introduction
Circuit Transfer for Efficient Stacking in 3D Integration
Non-Destructive Characterization of Stacked Layers
Example of 3D Integration Application Developments
Summary

LINCOLN LABORATORY.S 3D CIRCUIT INTEGRATION TECHNOLOGY
Introduction
Lincoln Laboratory.s Wafer-Scale 3D Circuit Integration Technology
Transferred FDSOI Transistor and Device Properties
3D Circuit and Device Results
Summary

3D INTEGRATION TECHNOLOGIES AT IMEC
Introduction 413
Key Requirements for 3D-Interconnect Technologies
3D Technologies at IMEC

FABRICATION USING COPPER THERMO-COMPRESSION BONDING AT MIT
Introduction
Copper Thermo-Compression Bonding
Process Flow
Discussion
Summary

RENSSELAER 3D INTEGRATION PROCESSES
Introduction
Via-Last 3D Platform Using Adhesive Wafer Bonding and Cu Damascene Inter-Wafer Interconnect
Via-Last 3D Platform Feasibility Demonstration: Via-Chain Structure with Key Unit Processes of Alignment, Bonding, Thinning andInter-wafer Interconnection
Via-First 3D Platform with Wafer-Bonding of Damascene-Patterned Metal/Adhesive Redistribution Layers
Via-First 3D Platform Feasibility Demonstration: Via-Chain Structure with Cu/BCB Redistribution Layers
Unit Process Advancements
Carbon Nanotube (CNT) Interconnect
Summary

3D INTEGRATION AT TEZZARON SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION
Introduction
Copper Bonding
Yield Issues
Interconnect Density
Process Requirements for 3D DRAM
FaStack Process Overview
Bonding Before Thinning
Tezzaron.s TSVs
Stacking Process Flow Details (with SuperContacts)
Stacking Process Flow with SuperVias
Additional Stacking Process Issues
Working 3D Devices
Qualification Results
FaStack Summary
Abbreviations and Definitions

3D INTEGRATION AT ZIPTRONIX, INC.
Introduction
Direct Bonding
Direct Bond Interconnect
Process Cost and Supply Chain Considerations

3D INTEGRATION ZYCUBE
Introduction
Current 3D-LSI -
New CSP Device for Sensors
Future 3D-LSI Technology

PART IV: Design, Performance, and Thermal Management

DESIGN FOR 3D INTEGRATION AT NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY
Why 3D?
Interconnect-Driven Case Studies
Computer-Aided Design
Discussion

MODELING APPROACHES AND DESIGN METHODS FOR 3D SYSTEM DESIGN
Introduction
Modeling and Simulation
Design Methods for 3D Integration
Conclusions

MULTIPROJECT CIRCUIT DESIGN AND LAYOUT IN LINCOLN LABORATORY.S 3D TECHNOLOGY
Introduction
3D Design and Layout Practice
Design and Submission Procedures

COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN FOR 3D CIRCUITS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA
Introduction
Thermal Analysis of 3D Designs
Thermally-Driven Placement and Routing of 3D Designs
Power Grid Design in 3D
Conclusion

ELECTRICAL PERFORMANCE OF 3D CIRCUITS
Introduction
3D Chip Stack Technology
Electrical Performance of 3D Contacts
Summary and Conclusion

TESTING OF 3D CIRCUITS
Introduction
Yield and 3D Integration
Known Good Die (KGD)
Wafer Stacking Versus Die Stacking
Defect Tolerant and Fault Tolerant 3D Stacks

THERMAL MANAGEMENT OF VERTICALLY INTEGRATED PACKAGES
Introduction
Fundamentals of Heat Transfer
Thermal-Packaging Modeling
Metrology in Thermal Packaging
Thermal Packaging Components
Heat Removal in Vertically-Integrated Packages

PART V: Applications


3D AND MICROPROCESSORS
Introduction
Design of 3D Microprocessor Systems
Fabrication of 3D Microprocessor Systems
Conclusions

3D MEMORIES
Introduction
Applications
Redistribution Layer
Through Wafer Interconnect
Stacking
Additional Issues
Future of 3D Memories

3D READ-OUT INTEGRATED CIRCUITS FOR ADVANCED SENSOR ARRAYS
Introduction
Current Activity in 3D ROICs
Conclusions

POWER DEVICES
Introduction
Wafer Level Packaging for Discrete Semiconductor Devices
Packaging for PowerMOSFET Devices
Chip Size Packaging of Vertical MOSFETs
Metal TWI Process for Vertical MOSFETs
Further Evaluation of the TWI MOSFET CSPs
Outlook

WIRELESS SENSOR SYSTEMS -
THE E-CUBES PROJECT
Introduction
e-CUBES Concept
Enabling 3D Integration Technologies
e-CUBES GHz Radios
e-CUBES Applications and Roadmap
Conclusions